The wife of his youth

Stick With Your Love One
In Charles Chestnutt’s “The Wife of His Youth,” Liza Jane is a woman who is determined to find her long lost husband, Sam Taylor. When he ran away from slavery and escaped up north, he left his wife behind. He changed his name to Mr. Ryder, to forget his past with slavery. Soon he became involved with a group called the Blue Veins, which were a group of people who believed in the preservation of light skinned blacks. In this group he was known as the dean. The Blue Vein society thought that dark skinned blacks were dirt and ignorant. Many years went by and Liza still felt that Sam was in love with her and that they would be back together.

Liza was determined to find Sam. She searched for twenty-five years first going to many southern cities. Everywhere she went she could not find Sam. She then furthered her search by moving northward still looking for Sam Taylor. Groveland, Washington D.C was the first place she went. There she met Mr. Ryder. He was well known in the city for his wealth, intelligence, and leadership. Liza thought Mr. Ryder could help her find her husband because of his popularity, she told him her story.
It was very clear through Liza’s story that she loved Sam. When they were slaves, Liza told him that he was going to be sold and took a beating for him. Before he
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was sold Sam ran away and moved up north. Since they could not find him, the slave owners sold Liza instead.
When the Civil War ended, Liza was freed she set out to look for her husband. Liza believed that one day she and Sam were going to find each other and be together. Mr. Ryder listened to her story and asked her questions. How did she survive? What if Sam has forgotten her? What if he has married a different woman? She continued to tell him how she cooked for different families and moved from place to place. She also told him that she did not think he would ever marry again until he found her.
There were three dreams that Liza had that showed her finding Sam. This guided her to believe that he was still alive. Liza’s dreams proved to be true. Liza found her long lost husband and had a conversation with him. Not knowing or recognizing that Mr. Ryder was her husband, she showed him an old picture of himself as Sam Taylor. He knew the picture was of him but he did not tell Liza. After they finish talking he told her that he was going to help her find Sam. Soon Mr. Ryder told Liza and the Blue Veins Society that he was Sam Taylor and that Liza Jane was the wife of his youth.
Liza never forgot of a life with Sam Taylor. Even though Sam escaped and changed his name, she kept faith alive. Maybe this story was mainly focused on keeping faith alive and believing that the one true love wasn’t really gone. Liza influence should be looked upon to readers who have lost their way in the ways of love. Through this paper one should be able to understand and feel the undying love of this woman. It should be an inspiration to all.

Violence Against Women Act

The Violence Against Women Act creates a right to be “free from crimes of
violence” that are gender motivated. It also gives a private civil right of
action to the victims of these crimes. The Senate report attached to the act
states that “Gender based crimes and fear of gender based crimes…reduces
employment opportunities and consumer spending affecting interstate
commerce.”
Sara Benenson has been abused by her husband, Andrew Benenson, since 1978.

Because of this abuse, she sued her husband under various tort claims and
violations under the Violence Against Women Act. Now Mr. Benenson is
protesting the constitutionality of this act claiming that Congress has no
right to pass a law that legislates for the common welfare.

However, Congress has a clear Constitutional right to regulate interstate
commerce. This act is based solely on interstate commerce and is therefore
Constitutional. Because of abuse, Sara Benenson was afraid to get a job
because it would anger her husband. She was afraid to go back to school and
she was afraid to go shopping or spend any money on her own. All three of
these things clearly interfere and affect interstate commerce. Women like
Mrs. Benenson are the reason the act was passed.

There has been a long history of judgements in favor of Congress’s power to
legislate using the commerce clause as a justification. For the past fifty
years, Congress’s right to interpret the commerce clause has been
unchallenged by the Court with few exceptions. There is no rational reason
for this court to go against the powerful precedents set by the Supreme court
to allow Congress to use the Commerce clause.

In the case of Katzenbach v. McClung, the Court upheld an act of Congress
which was based on the commerce clause, that prohibited segregation. McClung,
the owner of a barbeque that would not allow blacks to eat inside the
restaurant, claimed that his business was completely intrastate. He stated
that his business had little or no out of state business and was therefore
not subject to the act passed by Congress because it could not legislate
intrastate commerce. The Court however, decided that because the restaurant
received some of it’s food from out of state that it was involved in
interstate commerce.

The same logic should be applied in this case. Even though Sara Benenson’s
inability to work might not seem to affect interstate commerce, it will in
some way as with McClung, thus making the act constitutional. The Supreme
Court had decided that any connection with interstate commerce,as long as it
has a rational basis, makes it possible for Congress to legislate it.
In the United States v. Lopez decision, The Supreme Court struck down the Gun
Free School Zones Act. It’s reasoning was that Congress had overstepped it’s
power to legislate interstate commerce. The Court decided that this act was
not sufficiently grounded in interstate commerce for Congress to be allowed
to pass it.

The circumstances in this case are entirely different than in the case of
Sara Benenson. For one thing, the Gun Free School Zones Act was not nearly as
well based in the commerce clause as is our case. The Gun act said that
violence in schools kept student from learning and therefore limited their
future earning power. It also said that violence affected national insurance
companies. These connections are tenuous at best and generally too long term
to be considered. However, in the case of Mrs. Benenson, her inability to
work and spend directly and immediately affected interstate commerce.

Therefore, the Lopez decision should not have any part in the decision of
this case.

The Supreme Court, in McCulloch v. Maryland, gave Congress the right to make
laws that are out of their strict Constitutional powers so as to be able to
fulfill one of their Constitutional duties. In this case, the Court allowed
the federal government to create a bank. There is no Constitutional right to
do this and Maryland challenged the creation of this bank. The high court
ruled that in order for Congress to be able to accomplish it’s duties.

The same logic should be applied here. The Violence Against Women Act is an
example of Congress overstepping it’s direct Constitutional rights so it can
better regulate and facilitate interstate commerce. In order for Congress to
legislate interstate commerce fairly, it must allow people to be able to work
and spend as they should be able to. If a woman is afraid of being abused if
she gets a job or spends money, it affects interstate commerce. Thus The
Violence Against Women Act is Constitutionally based and necessary for
interstate commerce.

Violence against women is a terrible crime. It destroys women’s self esteem,
tears apart families, and destroys lives. Many times, it will lead to murder
or other terrible crimes. What the Violence Against Women Act is trying to do
is give women a weapon to protect themselves from violent spouses. Without
this act, many women would be left incapable of getting any form of financial
redress for the years of suffering and abuse they went through.
It is wrong to deny women a tool to rebuild they’re lives after an abusive
relationship. The years of abuse they went through makes it hard if not
impossible for them to get a job or work in an office. These women are afraid
for the rest of their lives that if they make a mistake or displease the men
around them, they will be beaten. This act allows women to get some means of
getting money to live on while they rebuild their lives. It allows them to
seek professional help if necessary. Without this act, women would be forced
on welfare or worse. When this happens, it benefits no one.

The Violence Against Women Act has a strong Constitutional basis in the
commerce clause, despite what Andrew Benenson says. The Supreme Court has
allowed many acts such as this to stand for the past fifty years. All the
precedents of cases with similar circumstances are to allow the act to
stand. Also, we cannot forget the human aspect of this case. This act is a
tool for women to rebuild their shattered lives after an abusive
relationship. To declare his act unconstitutional would be both legally and
morally wrong.Words
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Jordan craters

The Jordan Craters volcanic field is located on the Owyhee-Oregon Plateau at the southeastern end of a series of young basalt fields extending from near Bend, Oregon, through Diamond Craters in south-central Oregon (Volcanoes of the World). The Jordan Craters field is limited to the northern most and youngest portion of a larger (250 square kilometers) Quaternary alkaline basalt field. There are three major vent areas aligned north to south along surficial and inferred expressions of the regional Basin and Range faulting (Hart, W.K., and Mertzmann, S.A.). Fluid pahoehoe basalt flows emanated from each of these sources, with pyroclastic activity confined to small scatter cones and to a larger crater-cone complex (Coffeepot Crater) at the northernmost edge of the Jordan Craters portion of this field (Volcanoes of the World). This entire Quaternary alkaline basalt field is part of a larger field (nearly 800 square kilometers) that includes Pleistocene and Pliocene olivine tholeiite to transitional basalt flows and vents.
Jordan Craters is a wonderful sight mainly because of its well-preserved vents and striking flow features. Near Coffeepot Crater, the flow surfaces are vesicular shelly pahoehoe, which grade to massive tube-fed ropy pahoehoe in the distal regions. A 75-square-kilometer coffeepot Crater is a heart-shaped tephra cone constructed of numerous overlapping lobes of alternating densely to weakly welded scoriaceous lapilli and bombs (Volcanoes of the World). The walls of the crater show good evidence for a fluctuating lava pond, which appears to have broken through and rafted away portions of the northeastern and southeastern crater walls. Backflow of the lava pond into the conduit is indicated by pahoehoe crust on the present crater floor.
The Jordan Craters lava flow field is mineralogically and chemically homogeneous, whereas proximal tephra and flow deposits exhibit significant chemical heterogeneity which correlates with the eruptive history. Also noteworthy are the many excellent examples of basalt flow and eruption features, including ropy and shelly pahoehoe surfaces, lava channels, lava blisters, pressure ridges and squeeze-ups, pit craters, lava-tube skylights, vertically striated internal crater walls, and re-fused cobbles of rhyolitic country rock. Additionally, the southeasterly flowing lava altered ancestral drainage patterns, giving rise to a natural dam and the formation of two small lakes (Upper and Lower Cow Lakes). The Jordan Craters field is located on a high plateau approximately 200 kilometers southwest of Boise, Idaho.

A career in graphic arts

A career in graphic design is perfect for a creative individual who has a sense of design. “A graphic designer is one who creates ideas that are expressed in words and/or pictures, and generally solves problems of visual communication,” says Paul Rand, a professional designer (23). Employment in this profession is projected to increase 29% by the year 2006, which is the highest of any career according to a study done by the American Institute of the Graphic Arts (3). A graphic designer may work in a variety of places including a large firm or corporation, a specific design agency, a magazine or newspaper, or even in his own home as a freelance designer. There are few specific requirements needed to be involved in graphic design. However, there are similar traits and qualities that most designers generally possess, including training, knowledge of specific elements, using criticism positively, and a keen eye for color and balance. The cost of being a graphic designer must also be factored in. Graphic design is a career that offers a creative outlet but can be quite stressful, which is why designers must be cooperative and work well with others. A dexterous designer knows how to use criticism positively. Oftentimes criticism is what makes a piece of art better. Depending on the project, job duties may include designing and preparing layouts, sketching out ideas, arranging the materials needed, or putting together the final image. Since there may be different requirements for each client, a graphic designer (on average) should have the ability to be spontaneous and creative and work well under pressure and stressful in situations. “DO NOT be a designer if you stress out easily!” says Steve Jones (interview). In many cases a designer has deadlines which may not be negotiated with his clients, and therefore he must work productively. There is also the downside of creating an image that is not accepted by the client; the designer must then discuss what is wrong with it and perhaps start over. “Any job becomes creative when the doer cares about doing it right, or doing it better.” (Borenstein) Certain clients leave the project completely open-ended and up to the designer, while others have a specific idea in mind. It is important for the designer to remember that he is creating a piece of work for someone elses liking, and it may not be exactly what he would do on his own time. Most clients, however, choose their designers by looking at their portfolios or recognizing other pieces they have created. A client usually hires someone with a style he prefers. Other qualities that a designer must have include the ability to make original designs, knowledge of composition, and attention to detail. Social skills play a major role in the profession. While creating a design may be done independently, the final piece is usually presented by the designer to someone else. It is not likely that advanced math will be used, but basic skills such as adding and subtracting quickly and accurately are necessary. There is also not a lot of physical activity essential to the artist. “At the end of a project, your brain will feel like it just ran a marathon.” (Anderson) The amount of time it takes to create a piece of graphic art depends on the individual. If he is given a deadline, for instance, the designer will use his time wisely and efficiently to finish the project. A designer often works from his home, which allows them to choose their own hours. An experienced artist is aware of their personal style of creating and finishing a project. Some work well in an office setting, while others work more efficiently at night when it is quiet. Due to the variations in styles and individuals, a graphic designer generally spends around 25-50 hours a week working on projects. Preparing to be a professional graphic designer can vary depending on how much experience is desired by the individual. On average, the minimum amount of education is between two and four years of training in either fine art or design. Many choose to attend a general university to start with and often transfer to a specific art or design school. High school students are not expected to take classes specifically in graphic design, but advanced art classes will help them in the future. A basic four-year high school curriculum (English, math, science, and history) is all that is expected to have been taken by a high school student; however, college preparatory classes are beneficial. Since the demand for designers is quickly increasing, finding a job after advanced training is quite simple. Employers will look for those with a strong background, experience, and a large portfolio. A designer may have a natural ability to create an extraordinary piece of design; in this case a lot of training is not necessary. For this reason, students who wish to find work as soon as possible should look into attending an art school after they graduate from high school. Graphic design requires one to have knowledge and experience in working with images and type. “Typography is the term used to describe the use of words and type to convey a message” (Perfect). One who has an intelligent sense of design is familiar with how to incorporate color with type and image to create an emphasis where needed. It is important to be able to catch on to things quickly. A strong vocabulary will be to the designers advantage, because oftentimes words are used as the main focus; any misspellings would not be the clients fault. When looking at advertisements in magazines, for example, the ones that catch the eye have a good balance of image and type; there is not too much of one or the other. Computers are quickly becoming the most popular tool for combining image and type. The materials needed in graphic design can be quite expensive, but the final product will be worth it. As any artist knows, the cost of supplies adds up fast. The image(s) can either be taken from a photograph, a sketch, a painting, or any other type of art. There is also the need for access to a computer, scanner, and printer. Computer programs that are specifically designed for the graphic arts can be quite costly, such as Photoshop (about $600). In order to produce a nice piece of work, these materials are necessary. Other computer programs include Quark, Adobe Illustrator, and Corel Draw. In order to be a leading designer in the future, individuals in the profession must have the ability to come up with original and unique ideas. One who enjoys preparing layouts for school projects or arranging art into a final composition would excel in the graphic design field. Not anyone can be a graphic designer; only those who accept responsibility and have a natural ability in design will enjoy this career. Modern-day designers will be the leaders of the next millennium and will produce the designs that will be seen for years to come. The opportunities as a graphic artist are endless.


Bibliography:
paul rand
american institute of the graphic arts

The Hobbit – The Motivation of Lust

Anyone who had something of great value stolen from him would try to get it back. Even if that person had to go to high risks to reclaim what was theirs. In the book The Hobbit, a hobbit named Bilbo Baggins, a wizard named Gandalf, and thirteen dwarves have to get back their lost treasure that a character named Smaug stole. To reclaim their treasure they have to travel a long distance to the Lonely Mountain where Smaug is hiding . Throughout their journey they encounter many life-hindering experiences. Dangers and obstacles pop up everywhere. The reason why this group goes to such great lengths to get their treasure is because of one reason, which is their motivation of lust.


Lust created the conflict in this story. The conflict is the most important literary element because it directly affects everyone in the story. There are many conflicts, but the main one is between the dwarves and their lust for their lost treasure that Smaug has stolen. This conflict creates the basis for the story. Plus, there were conflicts added on because of this main conflict. Their journey to the Lonley Mountain consisted of one conflict after another.
Even though the conflicts on their journey are not as important as the main conflict, they are what make this book interesting. Tolkien’s choice of the main conflict is not the most creative. It is based upon the traditional story of “going out and taking back what is yours.” If I had to choose something I didn’t like about the book, it would be this simple plot. It is a good thing he added such adventurous conflicts to this story, otherwise it would not be a good piece of literature.
Through the conflicts in this story, the author has a lesson for the reader. The lesson is if one wants something bad enough, he must be ready to suffer the consequences. To claim the treasure the group has to go through a lot. Some examples of this are being abducted by an army of goblins, being captured by giant spiders, and being captured by woodland elves. If a person has a goal for himself, he too will have to go through hard times. The only way the group succeeded is by having lust and pride drive them on. A person with a goal must also have something to drive him towards his goal.


Lust is what carrys them to their goal. Yes, they do have troubles from this, but this is what made them win in the end. In society people are consumed with greed. Money is usually what they are after. Gold and silver is what the group is after. It is their motivation to go on. Even though lust is not always good to have, in this book it helps them out. This story proves that one can overcome the impossible if he has strong motivation, understanding that lust does not have to be the motivation. People in society need to learn that to succeed they need motivation
Motivation is the one thing the group needs to make it through the book’s setting. The setting is an element that is important to the conflict, and in itself an important conflict. The terrain was rough, the distance was long, and the surroundings were dangerous. The group has to travel through the treacherous Misty Mountains, being hassled by goblins. It almost dies while going through the Mirkwood forest by having gruesome spiders chase them. It has a big problem when Bilbo gets seperated from the group. He gets lost in a system of caves where he encounters Gollum, a mean creature that wants to eat him. This aweful setting shows what a great conflict the group has, and how the motivation of lust keeps them from giving up. Not only is the setting an important element to the conflict, it is one of the things I liked most about the book.


I enjoyed many attributes of this book, specifically the setting and the characters. The author’s elaborate descriptions of all the places are excellent. Most of the scenes are dark and mysterious. Many of the things the group goes through are so perilous that the setting has to be like this to make up for the danger. Each character in this story is described in a way that makes each individual unique. Bilbo, the main character, is very lovable and sentimental. He is short, fat, and hairy, and gets joy from blowing smoke rings and cooking. Gandalf is an extremely powerful wizard who accompanies Bilbo through their quest. He is very random and unpredictable, which makes him human-like. Thorin is the leader of the dwarves. He is very respectable and stubborn in his ways. The setting and characters help make this book a fine piece of literature.


Because this book is a fine piece of literature, the author has more strengths than weaknesses. The only noticeable weakness is the uncreative conflict, which is just the basic ” go and get what is yours.” The strengths definitely out number the weaknesses. Having intriguing characters, elaborate descriptions, and excellent adventures are just some of the author’s strengths. Because of the strengths, there are certain people that will find this novel more enjoyable. (people who will like this book better are described in the next paragraph)
This book should be recommended to people that like to daydream and have an active imagination. Those who would appreciate The Hobit the most would be people that like adventure and fantasy books. Readers who like action should read this novel. Also people who like explicit detail would like reading this. Some people, on the other hand, would not care for this book that much. A realist or a person with an inactive imagination would not find this book to be enjoyable because it is filled with things of fantasy, such as finding a ring with powers of turning someone invisible. Realism will take all the fun and enjoyment from this fairy tale. Having all the fantasy and adventure in this book is one of the things I liked most about it.


I enjoyed reading this book very much. I liked the characters the most, having Gollum as my favorite. I especially liked it when he calls himself “my precious.” This book was very appealing to me because of the suprising adventures. I liked how it kept my attention the whole way through, and also that it is a fairly short novel. The dialogue is also something I liked. It was not just chit-chat, but interesting. An example of interesting dialogue is Bilbo’s riddle contest with Gollum. That is my favorite part in the whole book. One last thing I liked about this book was the lesson Christians can learn. ( Lesson is in next paragraph)
There is a lesson that Christians can use to help them in their spiritual walk with God. The friends all have the same motivation to get their treasure back, which is lust. A Christian should not lust over things, but he should have a motivation. Christians as a whole should all have the same motivation. That motivation should be to serve God, and tell others about Him. If we have that motivation, we will be able to get through anything, just like the group. It goes through a lot of dangers, but it makes it. Christians will go through a lot of dangers too, but if they keep their motivation strong, it will help carry them through. I would now like to carry on to the conclusion.


To conclude, I would like to say that this book is very excellent. The cause of conflict, which is lust, is the perfect lesson for us all. The motivation of lust is what kept the group going. Themes such as this are hard to come by in adventure books. The group of friends overcome numerous difficult and deadly obstacles in their quest for their heart’s desire. This shows how one can overcome anything if his motivation is strong. An important question to ask oneself is, “What are my goals, and what is my motivation to reach these goals?” Usually there is one major motivation that will lead one on, just like the The Motivation of Lust

Post-Modern Victorian: A. S. Byatt’s Possession

Post-Modern Victorian:
A. S. Byatt’s Possession
If I had read A. S. Byatt’s novel Possession without having had British Literature, a lot of the novel’s meaning, analogies, and literary mystery would have been lost to me.The entire book seems one big reference back to something we’ve learned or read this May term. The first few lines of chapter one are poetry attributed to Randolph Henry Ash, which Byatt wrote herself. Already in those few lines I hear echoes of class, lines written in flowery Pre-Raphaelite tradition. “The serpent at its root, the fruit of gold /At the old world’s rim, /In the Hesperidean grove, the fruit /Glowed golden on eternal boughs, and there /The dragon Ladon crisped his jewelled (sic) crest.” Because of class, I was able to pick up on this poetry tradition right away. This story within a story is strengthened by Byatt’s ability to write Victorians accurately. Until I read some of the reviews, I thought Byatt’s Victorian characters were actual historical literary figures, when actually they are fictitious, and their journals, letters, and poetry are written by Byatt.
The action of the book takes place in two periods. The two main characters, Roland and Maud, are literary scholars living in the 1980’s. Their love story is shared and played out by the diaries, poetry, and correspondence of two poets and lovers from the 1860’s-Randolph Henry Ash and Christabel LaMotte.Although the book is modern fiction, much of it is a Victorian novel as well. Possession is characteristic of Byatt’s love for intertextuality and imbedded texts.Possession is also an example of several literary genres, all written into one book. At various times it gives evidence of poetry, mythology, a romance novel, a detective story, a fairy tale, journals and diaries, and scholarly writings.

There are several themes in Possession that tie this book to earlier texts that we have read. Individual versus group identity, feminism, sexuality and the link between present and past are themes that Byatt deals with in her novel. Interestingly, Byatt expresses many of these themes using symbolic color imagery, a technique that makes her writing reminiscent of Pre-Raphaelite style.
According to Byatt, the “struggle of the individual to discover and then live out her own identity, an identity etched out only with enormous effort and determination” is a major theme running through many of her novels, especially this one. The title itself brings out the first questions of identity-Possession. Who possesses whom? Does he possess her, or does she possess him? Are they owning and possessing their literary history, or does it possess them?
Individual identity is lost in the way the book is written. Many times, the reader cannot tell one couple from the other-who is reading Ash’s poetry, kissing, running away on a honeymoon of sorts, and making love? Is it Roland and Maud, or is she suddenly writing about Christabel and Ash again? Throughout the book, Byatt often makes these switches in characters between scenes without telling the reader. The effect is that the narrative is essentially no different for each couple living in different time periods. The same love story that defines Christabel and Ash in the 1860’s also describes Roland and Maud in the 1980’s.
In Victorian tradition, it was the man who “owned” the woman, his wife. Yet in this modern Victorian work, that becomes twisted. When Ash attempts to “claim” Christabel on page 308 by holding her and making love to her, the act of possession is switched around. He is trying figuratively to grasp her, and “she was liquid moving through his grasping fingers, as though she was waves of the sea rising all round him.” He tries to take her all in, to know her, and her womanhood eludes him, as personality always will. Byatt’s message seems to be that a personality cannot be taken or possessed by someone else, that individuality always remains, even in Victorian situations of female oppression and domination by males. This interwovenness and connection between the two couples through themes and situations, serves also to connect the past to the present, the Victorian to the Post-modern.

Feminism is an important aspect in each time period of the novel. Maud is a modern feminist, attempting to balance her identity as a woman with her identity as an academic scholar, and Christabel was trying to overcome her femininity by living as a recluse with another woman before she met R. H. Ash. Similarly, Maud is a withdrawn person, wary of men, and distrustful. Christabel is doing what many women of her time were doing, that is, struggling for masculine freedom in a world that was very limited for a woman. Maud is doing what many women today are attempting to do, that is, trying to reconcile and accept her femininity in an academic, typically male, environment. Byatt played up this feminist view of literature and society by choosing to base Christabel’s poetry (which Byatt wrote) on the strongly feminist poetry of Emily Dickinson, rather than on the softer voice of Christina Rossetti.
Another character, Roland’s old girlfriend Val, is anything but a feminist portrayal. She seems to serve as a balance and takes on a typical, subservient, Victorian woman’s role, even though she is a modern woman. She takes a job as a typist, even though she is a university scholar, constantly berates her job and herself as “menial,” and her thesis essay entitled “Male Ventriloquism: The Women of Randolph Henry Ash is discredited and attributed to a male writer. Val and the decrepit Victorian house where she and Roland share an apartment represent oppressive Victorian society, while Roland and Maud are living the more liberated version.
Sexuality is another issue that connects the two time periods. On page 6, there is a passage on R.H. Ash’s poem representing Proserpina, an ideal Greek woman, as “gold-skinned in the gloomgrain goldenand bound with golden links.” This is an example of idealized fertility and sexuality in Victorian women. It represents sexuality as something that can be conquered and possessed, like gold or grain. The suppression of sexuality in the Victorian era is a theme throughout the book, in both time periods, as is the sexual freedom that both couples eventually reach. The traces of sexuality in Victorian society have to be searched for and uncovered in Possession. There are hints of lesbianism, expressed by LaMotte’s retreat from society and setting up house with another woman. Ash and LaMotte’s love affair is hidden, in their own day and to the modern scholars, who have to dig through journals, poetry, and letters left by the two Victorian lovers to uncover it.Even Maud’s hair is symbolic, and ties her to Victorian society. She wears it covered with a scarf, symbolic of repressed Victorian sexuality.
The juxtaposition and link between the past and the present is a very significant aspect of Byatt’s novel. The storyline keeps shifting from the 1860’s to the present, and the characters are very similar. It is often difficult to tell which couple Byatt is writing about in any given situation, because their romances are so similar. The way this romantic narrative fits both couples and time periods seems to suggest that not so much has changed, and romance from one time to another is not so different as we thought. The characters mix the old and the new; Maud wears a brooch once belonging to Christabel, and another Ash scholar, Mortimer Cropper, carries Ash’s pocket watch. In the end of the novel, the last love letter written by Christabel enables Maud to finally enjoy the value of love in the present, and give her trust to Roland. The cyclical time frame of the novel provides an interesting contrast to the normal, stifling, linear time frame of typical literature and everyday life.
The way Byatt expresses many of these themes through her symbolic use of color is significant. Byatt paints with words, making her reminiscent of the Pre-Raphaelites. She gives color descriptions for her characters, painting the women such as LaMotte and Christabel in gold and green description, while persons whose characters are flat and never well-developed, such as Paola the secretary, are described in colorless terms. Paola has “long, colourless hair bound in a rubber band” huge mothlike glasses, and “dusty grey pads” for fingertips. Her lack of color sets her off from the beginning as a very flat character.
Category: Psychology

Pyramids

Pyramids
The pyramids of Egypt are the last remaining Wonder of the World. Even in the days of Ancient Egypt when powerful pharaohs ruled over Egypt the pyramids were considered a wonder. Today, the ruins of 35 pyramids still stand near the Nile River in Egypt. These pyramids were built to protect the bodies of Egyptian kings and other royalty but before the pyramids became the standard for burials, tombs were used for Egypt’s early rulers, nobles, and other high ranking officials. This group of hierarchy were laid to rest in rectangular, flat-topped mastabas of mud and brick. These mastabas were about 12 feet high and were easy targets for tomb robbers.
The first pyramid built was the Step Pyramid of Saqqara; it stands in the open desert south of Cairo. The Step Pyramid was built for King Djoser. The people of Egypt willingly labored to build these monuments for their rulers, believing that, as gods, the pharaohs had to be properly provided for in their afterlife. The Step Pyramid was built around 2630 B.C. It exhibited a radical new shape never before used, and it was so new the Egyptians used its silhouettes as the hieroglyphic for “primeval mound”, the first piece of earth to emerge from the soup of creation (Malek 90).
King Djoser’s chief architect for his pyramid was Imhotep. It is thought that King Djoser’s stone tomb started out having the standard shape of a mastaba. Then, as construction progressed, a concept evolved. Imhotep began to place one flat-topped stone structure atop another until he had created six steps by which the king could ascent to the heavens after death. The Egyptians had a firm belief in an afterlife and viewed their pharaohs as gods. These beliefs were a strong force that led to the piling up of stones to such a monumental scale. The Step Pyramid rose to a height of 204 feet; later pyramids increased in height as their designs changed. It was not sufficient that a pyramid be immense, but it had to be built so solidly that it would stand forever.
Although the Step Pyramid was the first pyramid, the Great Pyramid is the best known. The Great Pyramid was built for King Cheop. It is the largest pyramid of the three at Giza. The three pyramids built for King Cheops, King Chephrun, and King Mycerinos stand on the west bank of the Nile outside Cairo. They are the largest and best preserved of all Egyptian pyramids. They were built between 2600 B.C. and 2500 B.C. However, it is hard today to imagine the manpower involved in building the Great Pyramid (especially in our world of computers, machinery, and advanced technology. The ancient Egyptians had no machinery or iron tools to help in the building of the pyramids. The large limestone blocks used to build the pyramids were cut with copper chisels and saws. Most of these stones came from nearby quarries. An interesting fact to note is that camels were not brought into use until twenty centuries after the pyramids were built. Human strength was used to drag the stones from the quarries or from the boats (Casson 76). The stones were then dragged and pushed into place for the first layer of the Great Pyramid, which was placed on flat level ground. Next, long ramps were built of earth and brick moving the blocks up the ramps to form the next layer. After the top layer was finished the workers covered the pyramid with an outer coating of white casing stone, which gave the Great Pyramid a brilliant shrine during the day when the sun shone down on it. The outer coating of white casing stone were laid so perfectly that from a distance the pyramid appeared to have been made from a single white stone.
The main difference of the Great Pyramid compared to other pyramids, besides the fact of its size, is the difference of the location of the burial chamber. The Great Pyramid’s burial chamber was in the uppermost part of the pyramid. This was something new, burial chambers in other pyramids were located beneath the pyramid. To reach the burial chamber inside the Great Pyramid a upward sloping corridor was built. The ramp for the king’s ascent to the polar stars was therefore lost. A substitute for the ramp was devised in the form of a northern ventilation shaft, which was a replica of the lower entrance corridor. King Cheop was to be positioned facing this northern view. But what of King Cheop? His body has never been found. Did he have a secret chamber built for himself that was so well hidden that it was impossible to find? Did thieves steal or destroy King Cheop’s body for the jewels and gold hidden within the body wrapping? Answers to these questions have yet to be found.
It is estimated that it took about 2,300,000 separate blocks, each weighing an average of two and a half tons, to build King Cheop’s Great Pyramid. Some blocks weighed up to fifteen tons. The base of the Great Pyramid covered thirteen acres and reached a height of 481 feet. To accomplish the feat of building the Great Pyramid it took 23 years and a work force of tens of thousands peasant laborers (Hallibunton 335). The enormous size of the Great Pyramid can better be visualized with the fact that Saint Paul’s Cathedral and the House of Parliament could be housed within the Great Pyramid. If the Great Pyramid was sawed into cubes, measuring a foot in each dimension and placed in a row, they would extend over a distance almost equal to the circumference of the earth (Edwards 104). It is no wonder the Great Pyramid is still a Wonder of the World.
All pyramids, no matter their size, design, or age, share a common curse. Tomb robbers have plundered the pyramids for centuries stealing gold, gems, beautiful furniture, clothing, musical instruments, even sacred vases containing a pharaoh’s vital organs. All these items were common items found inside a burial chamber. Now they have all been lost forever because of tomb robbers of today and yesterday. The well known Arabic proverb “Death comes on wings to he who enters the tomb of the pharaoh” (Casson 81) meant little to the tomb robbers. Others who have heard the warning and chose not to listen or believe have eventually paid the price. One such person was Lord Carnarvon, who headed the excavation of King Tutankhamun’s tomb. Lord Carnarvon died quite unexpectedly from a 4000 year old fungus he came in contact with inside the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Shortly after Lord Carnarvon parished, other members of the excavation party began to meet with unusual and sometimes unexplainable accidents. These so called accidents claimed the lives of thirty six members of the party (Reeves 31). Was it the pharaoh’s curse or just coincidence?
In Las Vegas, Nevada the hotel-casino Luxor was built. The Luxor was built in the shape of a pyramid. A replica of the Sphinx sits in front of the giant pyramid shape casino. When the hotel was being built a report was given, and the construction workers interviewed were afraid of the pyramid shaped casino. The workers believed in the Curse of the Pharaohs. The numerous accidents had sent other workers to the local hospital emergency room. Other Las Vegas casinos are blaming their misfortunes on Luxor. It is no wonder that magic, superstition, and the unknown has followed mankind since the earlier times of the first mysterious pyramids!

Down Syndrome: An Informative Essay

Down Syndrome: An Informative Essay
Down Syndrome is the name for babies born with a disorder related to
their chromosomes. It is caused when meiosis occurs and an error occurs in the
cells development. The reason for this defect is often because the parent is
over 40 or for some other reason their meiosis is not “Up to par.”
The actual defect is an extra chromosome is developed during cell
development. The abnormal development results in 47 chromosomes rather than the
usual 46 (23 from each parent).


This extra gene causes problems in the child’s physical and mental development.

There are an estimated 5000 babies with Down Syndrome born in America every
single year. While the chances of having a Down Syndrome baby are slim, (1 in
1000) it is still an issue that to-be parents should discuss and prepare for.


People with Down Syndrome are identified by many physical
characteristics. Some of these are: larger or almond shaped eyes (sometimes
Brushfield spots on the irises), smaller than normal features, such as smaller
ears or a smaller nose, short stubby fingers, a single palmar crease on their
hands, and having exceptional social intelligence.


Because Down Syndrome is cause by a cell abnormality during meiosis, it
can not really be proven that Down Syndrome is hereditary. A perfectly healthy
mother could have a Down Syndrome baby even though there was never any sign of
the disorder in her pedigree. There are however, three different kinds of Down
Syndrome. 95% of Down Syndrome babies have Trisomy 21. This is the presence of
extra genetic material on the 21st pair of chromosomes. Around 4% have what is
called Translocation. This is where the extra chromosome 21 decided to break
away and attach itself to another chromosome. The last 1% is made up of those
with Mosaicism. This is where some cells have Trisomy 21 while others do not.


There is no cure for Down Syndrome. There is also not way to prevent it.

Once faced with the fact you have a Down Syndrome baby however, the baby will
need various kinds of checks and treatment to help it live. Down Syndrome babies
have a very high rate of congenital heart defects. In fact 30% to 50% have these
defects. An endocardiogram is a way to check babies for any signs of defect and
start the child on treatment. Down Syndrome babies also require more effort and
time in teaching them things because they learn at a much slower rate.


In the case that I find out I am going to be the father of a Down
Syndrome child, I would keep the child even though it would be very hard on me
and my wife. Even though our child would not be the next Einstein or even close,
a life is a life regardless of its intelligence and I would do my best to guide
my new-born child through life.

Swift

Jonathan Swift: Misguided and Incorrect Criticisms
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) is quite possibly the greatest satirist in the history of English literature, and is without question the most controversial. Infuriated by the moral degradation of society in the eighteenth century, Swift wrote a plethora of bitter pieces attacking man’s excessive pride, and the critical reception has been one of very mixed reviews. While few question Swift’s skill as a satirist, his savage, merciless attacks on the foibles of mankind have led more than one critic to level negative accusations against him. His beliefs have led to allegations of heresy, an anti-government attitude and a devotion to freeing man’s right to passion. His most famous work, Gulliver’s Travels, has resulted in attacks on his writing style, and his cruel, invidious assaults on sin have led to cries of egotist, misanthrope and sadist. Every one of these accusations is false. Jonathan Swift’s critics are misguided and incorrect in their attacks on his beliefs and writings.
Jonathan Swift is falsely accused of heresy for attacking human life. Swift infuriates some critics for criticizing something that they feel must be divine since it is the chief instrument of God. These critics argue that human nature must be dignified if it is the key theme of Christianity. They, however, are wrong, and are guilty of being naive. Swift and his supporters counter their attacks by pointing out that it is hypocritical of them to revere such vices as corruption, greed, and immortality, and these critics need to take a serious look at this (Knowles 34-35). Swift himself has answered these charges of heresy, explaining that he has never been anti-Christian and only disagrees with the concept of original sin. Throughout his life and in his writings, Jonathan Swift has always been a devout man of religion (Tuveson 103, 3).
Critics falsely claim that Jonathan Swift sees God as much too great for humans (Dennis 58). Swift’s writings prove that he has always been a firm believer that only God and Christ are capable of absolute moral perfection, but he also strongly believes that man is definitely capable of shortening the gap (Tuveson 129). Swift has said that he normally has no belief in theories or systems, due to the fact that they are driven by man and therefore cannot operate perfectly. Christianity, he feels, is an exception to this rule, because the system guides man just as man guides the system (Bloom, Swift 15). This belief also counters the allegations of heresy.
Jonathan Swift has often falsely been accused of being anti-government. One of Swift’s many attackers, Leslie Stephen, assails him for tracing “every existing evil to the impostures and corruptions . . . of government” (Bloom, Gulliver 33). While parts one, two and three of Gulliver’s Travels are written partially as attacks on the Whigs, Swift only does so because of his allegiance with the Tories, an opposing party. It is a grim portrayal of officials, and Swift’s supporters believe it is an accurate one (Knowles 33-34). It is written out of a hope for change, however, not of hate. Swift makes it clear that he is not opposed to government, and he looks down upon radicals and firmly supports government and “established institutions” (Tuveson 5). Swift is an incredibly moral man, and would never believe that government could be a truly moral body. Nevertheless, he feels it can encourage virtue among its people, even if that is not its actual motive (Bloom, Swift 14). Swift sees a necessity for government if man is to ever realize good sensibility. With the help of government, people can be pushed in the direction of good sense through rules and regulations and eventually, after being forced to act wisely over and over, be able to make good decisions on their own (Tuveson 11).
Critics have claimed that Swift’s chief goal is to free the world of passion. This is not the case, as a passionless society would render Swift incapable of satire, and he realizes this (Ward 6). Swift only wants man to realize that he is made up of two parts: passion and good sense (Knowles 36). Swift believes, as Kathleen Williams points out, that man’s “mind and body are at odds and must be, as far as possible, reconciled.” He attacks man’s complexity because it prevents him from choosing rationally between passion and good sense and keeps him from maturing into a wholesome, sensible person (Bloom, Swift 15). Swift has no desires to eliminate passion. He only wants man to have some control over it (Knowles 36).
Critics incorrectly argue that much of Swift’s work is simply absurd and overly imaginative (Knowles 36). Gulliver’s Travels includes many “absurdities,” such as gods being frightened by puppies, a jealous minister and meretricious maids of honor, but each of them are included for a reason (Bloom, Gulliver 43). Swift has inserted each of these absurdities to prove his theory that man is naive and ignorant of his problems, because the reader, like Gulliver, laughs at them instead of realizing that they are problems of his own. What many of Swift’s critics do not realize is that his writings feature a dark, twisted sense of humor (Bloom, Gulliver 40, 43). He uses comedic undertones and then startles the reader into shock when these absurdities show just how evil man can truly be (Brady 71). He sets up readers with a flip-flop between reality and the imagination (Tuveson 58). What the reader at first fails to realize, and then is horrified to finally see, is that the joke is actually on him (Bloom, Gulliver 44).
Swift is criticized for Gulliver’s ability to write three positive books in Gulliver’s Travels, when it is said that Gulliver writes the story after his travels are completed and he is completely disgusted by the actions of mankind (Ward 124). These strange actions by Gulliver actually showcase man as over-anxious, someone who acts hurriedly and irrationally and as a result errs in his work (Bloom, Gulliver 45). The reader can roll his eyes at Gulliver’s foibles, but when criticizing his writing the reader is criticizing himself for being incomplete and incoherent (Ward 125). Contrary to criticism, Gulliver’s Travels is far more coherent than it is given credit for (Bloom, Gulliver 45).
Another misconception of critics is that the actions of Gulliver are intended to prove that people are less than human (Ward 8). This was never Swift’s intention. Gulliver originally comes off as an intelligent fellow, and the reader can easily relate to him. Gulliver later acts foolishly with hubris pride, and the reader frowns upon Gulliver and, as a result, himself (Brady 72-73). Satire like this serves as a wake-up call for the reader. Swift constantly shifts the attitudes of his characters, such as Gulliver, to keep the reader from growing complacent. These shifts irritate the reader’s views on life and he is forced to change (Ward 7, 15).
Jonathan Swift is once again unfairly attacked for his references to human excrement in several of his works. George Gilfillan was so offended that he referred to Swift as a “minor Satan.” Gilfillan and others are bothered most by several mentions of feces in Gulliver’s Travels, especially the spraying of Gulliver, and they fail to see the true significance of the excrement. Swift set out to inspire their anger to prove that man often becomes upset over everyday actions which are trivial compared to the bigger picture, which is sin such as pride (Knowles 38). William Hazlett defends Swift on this matter, claiming that those who attack Swift over the excremental references are ignorant hypocrites (Bloom, Gulliver 31).
Swift does not put himself above criticism as he has often been accused of doing. He attacks the fallacies of society and, as a member of society, is forced to attack the vices of himself (Ward 2). It has been a common criticism that Swift is foolish for using two different voices in one piece. However, this only points out that Swift does not put himself above criticism, as it showcases the fact that his thoughts and feelings are as incoherent as the rest of society’s. Swift loves to mock society, but in so doing, he is also mocking himself (Tuveson 8).
Swift has unfairly been referred to as conceited. Critics claim his works are of an egotistical slant that makes simple people look cowardly and deceitful (Knowles 34). Swift cannot possibly be an egotist, as he has made it clear that his chief adversary is man’s pride (Tuveson 102). He uses Gulliver as his chief means of conveying this. Gulliver lies early in Gulliver’s Travels to defend his beliefs and reputation, refusing to take a shot to his ego in the name of honesty (Brady 6). In part one of Gulliver’s Travels, Gulliver’s vision is skewed by the rays of the sun. This represents man’s blindness towards morality and values. Later, Gulliver is searched by the Lilliputans and they find glasses in his pockets. This proves that man’s vision (meaning his views and beliefs) cannot be trusted because his pride gets in the way (Bloom, Gulliver 11-12). To accuse Swift of being self-conscious is as absurd as any other accusation that has been leveled against him. In Swift’s time, society began to look at pride as not a vice but a virtue, and Swift felt it was his duty to change this (Brady 28).
Perhaps the most common criticism leveled against Jonathan Swift is that he is a misanthrope. Walter Scott, infuriated by Swift’s attitude towards man, went so far as to call him an extreme misanthrope and said Swift was full of “mental disease” (Knowles 37). David Ward goes just as far, claiming that Swift “lacks completely that instinctive respect for the value of human life which is an essential part of humanity (9). As Ronald Knowles points out, these attacks on Swift prove that his critics agreed with what he was saying and they resorted to false accusations simply out of fear and paranoia (38). Swift does not hate man for lacking moral perfection. Man cannot be expected to have this (Dennis 49). Swift hates man’s stupidity, folly and excessive pride, but he has never given up on his brethren (Brady 79). Swift is forced to use extreme pessimism to crack the smug self-confidence of the sinning optimist (Ward 13). He believes that humans, just as animals, are capable of evolving (Tuveson 11). Swift is not a misanthrope, he only wants to create awareness. His goal in works such as Gulliver’s Travels is to change society, not to create hysteria or destroy it (Brady 23).
Several of Swift’s critics go even farther than misanthropy, accusing him of sadism. He is accused by some of actually enjoying the pain he inflicts on his readers through his thick satire (Knowles 34). British poet John Gay was bothered greatly by Swift’s work, and went so far as to beg Swift to take mercy on his readers, claiming that his writings are much too hard on human beings (Bloom, Gulliver 26). Just as Swift is unfairly labeled a misanthrope, he most certainly is not a sadist. The sole objective of his satire is to simply open people’s eyes to the many problems of human nature. While his writings seem negative, Swift wants to help people, not hurt them. For example, Swift uses midgets and giants in Gulliver’s Travels. Midgets and giants are still people, but they are by no means as frightening an image as the average human being. By using outlandish humans such as these midgets and giants, Swift allows man to examine the fallacies of himself without becoming overly frightened (Knowles 35-36). Swift never intends to hurt anyone through his writing, and he loves all “individuals” (Tuveson 105).
Due to the immense popularity of works such as Gulliver’s Travels and A Tale of a Tub, criticism of Jonathan Swift will probably continue on forever. And as more and more people read his bitter attacks on an eighteenth-century lifestyle that mirrors their own in immorality and decadence, more and more accusations such as heretic and misanthrope will be leveled. Swift’s work will continue to force people to look themselves in the eyes, and as long as they refuse to accept the truths that Swift lays before them, the naive and ignorant allegations will continue to fly. Jonathan Swift, by his own admission, was not a perfect man nor a perfect writer, but the criticisms leveled against his beliefs and writings simply out of ignorance and naivet will continue to be dismissed as misguided and incorrect.
Jonathan Swift: Misguided and Incorrect Criticisms
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) is quite possibly the greatest satirist in the history of English literature, and is without question the most controversial. Infuriated by the moral degradation of society in the eighteenth century, Swift wrote a plethora of bitter pieces attacking man’s excessive pride, and the critical reception has been one of very mixed reviews. While few question Swift’s skill as a satirist, his savage, merciless attacks on the foibles of mankind have led more than one critic to level negative accusations against him. His beliefs have led to allegations of heresy, an anti-government attitude and a devotion to freeing man’s right to passion. His most famous work, Gulliver’s Travels, has resulted in attacks on his writing style, and his cruel, invidious assaults on sin have led to cries of egotist, misanthrope and sadist. Every one of these accusations is false. Jonathan Swift’s critics are misguided and incorrect in their attacks on his beliefs and writings.
Jonathan Swift is falsely accused of heresy for attacking human life. Swift infuriates some critics for criticizing something that they feel must be divine since it is the chief instrument of God. These critics argue that human nature must be dignified if it is the key theme of Christianity. They, however, are wrong, and are guilty of being naive. Swift and his supporters counter their attacks by pointing out that it is hypocritical of them to revere such vices as corruption, greed, and immortality, and these critics need to take a serious look at this (Knowles 34-35). Swift himself has answered these charges of heresy, explaining that he has never been anti-Christian and only disagrees with the concept of original sin. Throughout his life and in his writings, Jonathan Swift has always been a devout man of religion (Tuveson 103, 3).
Critics falsely claim that Jonathan Swift sees God as much too great for humans (Dennis 58). Swift’s writings prove that he has always been a firm believer that only God and Christ are capable of absolute moral perfection, but he also strongly believes that man is definitely capable of shortening the gap (Tuveson 129). Swift has said that he normally has no belief in theories or systems, due to the fact that they are driven by man and therefore cannot operate perfectly. Christianity, he feels, is an exception to this rule, because the system guides man just as man guides the system (Bloom, Swift 15). This belief also counters the allegations of heresy.
Jonathan Swift has often falsely been accused of being anti-government. One of Swift’s many attackers, Leslie Stephen, assails him for tracing “every existing evil to the impostures and corruptions . . . of government” (Bloom, Gulliver 33). While parts one, two and three of Gulliver’s Travels are written partially as attacks on the Whigs, Swift only does so because of his allegiance with the Tories, an opposing party. It is a grim portrayal of officials, and Swift’s supporters believe it is an accurate one (Knowles 33-34). It is written out of a hope for change, however, not of hate. Swift makes it clear that he is not opposed to government, and he looks down upon radicals and firmly supports government and “established institutions” (Tuveson 5). Swift is an incredibly moral man, and would never believe that government could be a truly moral body. Nevertheless, he feels it can encourage virtue among its people, even if that is not its actual motive (Bloom, Swift 14). Swift sees a necessity for government if man is to ever realize good sensibility. With the help of government, people can be pushed in the direction of good sense through rules and regulations and eventually, after being forced to act wisely over and over, be able to make good decisions on their own (Tuveson 11).
Critics have claimed that Swift’s chief goal is to free the world of passion. This is not the case, as a passionless society would render Swift incapable of satire, and he realizes this (Ward 6). Swift only wants man to realize that he is made up of two parts: passion and good sense (Knowles 36). Swift believes, as Kathleen Williams points out, that man’s “mind and body are at odds and must be, as far as possible, reconciled.” He attacks man’s complexity because it prevents him from choosing rationally between passion and good sense and keeps him from maturing into a wholesome, sensible person (Bloom, Swift 15). Swift has no desires to eliminate passion. He only wants man to have some control over it (Knowles 36).
Critics incorrectly argue that much of Swift’s work is simply absurd and overly imaginative (Knowles 36). Gulliver’s Travels includes many “absurdities,” such as gods being frightened by puppies, a jealous minister and meretricious maids of honor, but each of them are included for a reason (Bloom, Gulliver 43). Swift has inserted each of these absurdities to prove his theory that man is naive and ignorant of his problems, because the reader, like Gulliver, laughs at them instead of realizing that they are problems of his own. What many of Swift’s critics do not realize is that his writings feature a dark, twisted sense of humor (Bloom, Gulliver 40, 43). He uses comedic undertones and then startles the reader into shock when these absurdities show just how evil man can truly be (Brady 71). He sets up readers with a flip-flop between reality and the imagination (Tuveson 58). What the reader at first fails to realize, and then is horrified to finally see, is that the joke is actually on him (Bloom, Gulliver 44).
Swift is criticized for Gulliver’s ability to write three positive books in Gulliver’s Travels, when it is said that Gulliver writes the story after his travels are completed and he is completely disgusted by the actions of mankind (Ward 124). These strange actions by Gulliver actually showcase man as over-anxious, someone who acts hurriedly and irrationally and as a result errs in his work (Bloom, Gulliver 45). The reader can roll his eyes at Gulliver’s foibles, but when criticizing his writing the reader is criticizing himself for being incomplete and incoherent (Ward 125). Contrary to criticism, Gulliver’s Travels is far more coherent than it is given credit for (Bloom, Gulliver 45).
Another misconception of critics is that the actions of Gulliver are intended to prove that people are less than human (Ward 8). This was never Swift’s intention. Gulliver originally comes off as an intelligent fellow, and the reader can easily relate to him. Gulliver later acts foolishly with hubris pride, and the reader frowns upon Gulliver and, as a result, himself (Brady 72-73). Satire like this serves as a wake-up call for the reader. Swift constantly shifts the attitudes of his characters, such as Gulliver, to keep the reader from growing complacent. These shifts irritate the reader’s views on life and he is forced to change (Ward 7, 15).
Jonathan Swift is once again unfairly attacked for his references to human excrement in several of his works. George Gilfillan was so offended that he referred to Swift as a “minor Satan.” Gilfillan and others are bothered most by several mentions of feces in Gulliver’s Travels, especially the spraying of Gulliver, and they fail to see the true significance of the excrement. Swift set out to inspire their anger to prove that man often becomes upset over everyday actions which are trivial compared to the bigger picture, which is sin such as pride (Knowles 38). William Hazlett defends Swift on this matter, claiming that those who attack Swift over the excremental references are ignorant hypocrites (Bloom, Gulliver 31).
Swift does not put himself above criticism as he has often been accused of doing. He attacks the fallacies of society and, as a member of society, is forced to attack the vices of himself (Ward 2). It has been a common criticism that Swift is foolish for using two different voices in one piece. However, this only points out that Swift does not put himself above criticism, as it showcases the fact that his thoughts and feelings are as incoherent as the rest of society’s. Swift loves to mock society, but in so doing, he is also mocking himself (Tuveson 8).
Swift has unfairly been referred to as conceited. Critics claim his works are of an egotistical slant that makes simple people look cowardly and deceitful (Knowles 34). Swift cannot possibly be an egotist, as he has made it clear that his chief adversary is man’s pride (Tuveson 102). He uses Gulliver as his chief means of conveying this. Gulliver lies early in Gulliver’s Travels to defend his beliefs and reputation, refusing to take a shot to his ego in the name of honesty (Brady 6). In part one of Gulliver’s Travels, Gulliver’s vision is skewed by the rays of the sun. This represents man’s blindness towards morality and values. Later, Gulliver is searched by the Lilliputans and they find glasses in his pockets. This proves that man’s vision (meaning his views and beliefs) cannot be trusted because his pride gets in the way (Bloom, Gulliver 11-12). To accuse Swift of being self-conscious is as absurd as any other accusation that has been leveled against him. In Swift’s time, society began to look at pride as not a vice but a virtue, and Swift felt it was his duty to change this (Brady 28).
Perhaps the most common criticism leveled against Jonathan Swift is that he is a misanthrope. Walter Scott, infuriated by Swift’s attitude towards man, went so far as to call him an extreme misanthrope and said Swift was full of “mental disease” (Knowles 37). David Ward goes just as far, claiming that Swift “lacks completely that instinctive respect for the value of human life which is an essential part of humanity (9). As Ronald Knowles points out, these attacks on Swift prove that his critics agreed with what he was saying and they resorted to false accusations simply out of fear and paranoia (38). Swift does not hate man for lacking moral perfection. Man cannot be expected to have this (Dennis 49). Swift hates man’s stupidity, folly and excessive pride, but he has never given up on his brethren (Brady 79). Swift is forced to use extreme pessimism to crack the smug self-confidence of the sinning optimist (Ward 13). He believes that humans, just as animals, are capable of evolving (Tuveson 11). Swift is not a misanthrope, he only wants to create awareness. His goal in works such as Gulliver’s Travels is to change society, not to create hysteria or destroy it (Brady 23).
Several of Swift’s critics go even farther than misanthropy, accusing him of sadism. He is accused by some of actually enjoying the pain he inflicts on his readers through his thick satire (Knowles 34). British poet John Gay was bothered greatly by Swift’s work, and went so far as to beg Swift to take mercy on his readers, claiming that his writings are much too hard on human beings (Bloom, Gulliver 26). Just as Swift is unfairly labeled a misanthrope, he most certainly is not a sadist. The sole objective of his satire is to simply open people’s eyes to the many problems of human nature. While his writings seem negative, Swift wants to help people, not hurt them. For example, Swift uses midgets and giants in Gulliver’s Travels. Midgets and giants are still people, but they are by no means as frightening an image as the average human being. By using outlandish humans such as these midgets and giants, Swift allows man to examine the fallacies of himself without becoming overly frightened (Knowles 35-36). Swift never intends to hurt anyone through his writing, and he loves all “individuals” (Tuveson 105).
Due to the immense popularity of works such as Gulliver’s Travels and A Tale of a Tub, criticism of Jonathan Swift will probably continue on forever. And as more and more people read his bitter attacks on an eighteenth-century lifestyle that mirrors their own in immorality and decadence, more and more accusations such as heretic and misanthrope will be leveled. Swift’s work will continue to force people to look themselves in the eyes, and as long as they refuse to accept the truths that Swift lays before them, the naive and ignorant allegations will continue to fly. Jonathan Swift, by his own admission, was not a perfect man nor a perfect writer, but the criticisms leveled against his beliefs and writings simply out of ignorance and naivet will continue to be dismissed as misguided and incorrect.
Bibliography:

Kelly Turner

Intro to Theatre TH102
Reaction Paper #1
11/04/03
Bat Boy: The Musical
The play Bat Boy: The Musical is the product of an historic alliance
between the Weekly World News and three authors from Los Angeles. This
wonderful production combines the journalism of the Weekly World News with
the power of song. It’s a creative theatrical production based on the
alleged sightings of a mysterious “bat child”, half-boy and half-bat,
reported by tabloid newspapers.

The protagonist of the production is the Bat Boy. We see him go through
many changes throughout the course of the play. In the beginning he appears
as a scared and strange creature. He then transforms into what he sees to
be a regular boy, but reality comes back to him quickly as he realizes he
will never be a typical human boy. I felt that the antagonist of the play
was Dr. Thomas Parker. It’s difficult for me to make a choice on this
because everyone at one time or another was opposing the Bat Boy.

The play was communicated through many different elements. Dialogue was
presented with spoken language in sometimes extreme ways. The use of
language volume helped to get many points of excitement and anger across to
the audience. Action in this play helped us to see the fear of the Bat Boy
from the very beginning. His rapid movement across the stage and the
shaking of his cage are examples of how the Bat Boy showed us the fear he
felt. The use of props such as smelly smoke pellets were also used to help
the audience get a sense of what it would be like to be near the Bat Boy.

Music and dance were also used as a main tool to communicate the feelings
and motives in the play.

This production is a farcical comedy that moves nicely from slapstick to
drama. It is full of witty dialogue and songs, tabloid worthy plot twists,
and feigned seriousness .I feel that the play was straightforward. I could
see where some audience members might not feel the same. It has many ideas
that I believe have deeper meaning. The production was humorous,
startling, absurd and sometimes frightening.

The plot of the play was very interesting. I had no idea what type of
story line a playwright could create with such a topic as a Bat Boy. I was
extremely impressed with the creative premise of this production. As an
audience member I could tell from the very beginning that this would be a
dramatic play with an intense plot. The emergent meaning was well done. As
the play begins and the teenage siblings locate the Bat Boy in the cave,
you see that he is not human by his action of biting the young girl. The
kids bring the boy back to town, hoping the creature will be destroyed.

Fortunately for the musical’s plot the sheriff delivers him to the local
veterinarian, whose family takes an instant liking to him. They decide to
“tame” him. The humor of the story continues quickly as the boy becomes
more human than bat like. The town reacts with negativity, than with a
positive attitude, than negative again. He soon discovers the secret of his
origin. The Bat Boy character is played with an awesome display of
physicality and voice as he climbs around the stage and delivers musical
numbers with a terrific voice. I felt that every character worked. They all
tied the plays plot together. Each one helped the audience to get a feeling
of suspense and each one brought humor to the play. The use of
collaborative art to bring this production to the stage at Washburn was
outstanding. The enactment of the scenes by every character in the play was
incredible.

The visual elements of the performance truly brought this play together.

The choreography was outstanding and eye catching. The scenic design is a
wonderful blend of cave vs. civilization. The costumes were simple enough
for the audience to focus on the character as a whole and simple enough for
quick, easy changes by wearing a different hat for example. The lighting
design gives the audience a wonderful feel in each scene. I loved the
sequence when the audience is blinded with lights. The music in Bat Boy was
extremely entertaining. The kind of catchy music you can’t get out of your
head even after your long gone from the theatre. The music explored rap,
hoe down, and gospel and the ballads were wonderfully sappy. I believe that
all of these elements of spectacle and music helped enhance the meaning of
this play.

This play contained so many elements of theatricalism. It employed vivid
imagery throughout. The scene where Bat Boy is eating the cow head is a
good example. Heightened language took place throughout the production.

This play also called attention to the mechanics of the theatre. The
performers themselves came on and off the stage in order to move the props.


This production of Bat Boy was wonderful. I beleive that the playwright
was trying to get the point across to the audience that we all contain a
dark side and that we need to accept this fact. Maybe he believes that we
all have a Bat Boy inside of us.