The book I read for my book review was Dawn, by Elie Wiesel. This story
represents the post WWII struggle of the Israeli freedom fighters one young
man in particular, who has found himself on the other side of the gun. Wiesel
himself severed his time in the death camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald during
the War, and had previously written Night, the memoirs of his experiences. The
purpose of this book, in my mind, was to express the inner most thoughts and the
anguish of Elisha. Elisha is 18 years old. He was recruited by a gentleman named
Gad, who turned him into a fighter. He has killed before for their cause, but
only in groups never alone. Our bullets were a flaming wall on which
their lives were shattered My five comrades and I set out to either kill or
to be killed. Pg28. But now, Elisha wasnt in a group. He had been ordered
to execute an English officer, John Dawson, as to compensate for the British
capturing David ben Moshe, one of their own. In tradition, executions always
took place at dawn in their culture; usually around 5AM. Elisha has less than
twelve hours before he will be labeled as a murderer for the rest of his life.

Hes having a difficult time coming to the reality that he is going to have to
kill a man on his own. I should forget this night. But the dead never
forget In their eyes I should be forever branded a killer. Pg69. Of
course, then again, if anyone were put into that position having to kill a
man, who has done nothing wrong except be born of English blood I think they
would be having some serious issues with themselves as well. In the Jewish
tradition, there is a lot of focus on and towards nighttime. Night is a very
important in that Night is purer than day; it is better for thinking and
loving and dreaming. At night everything is more intense, more true. The echo of
words that have been spoken during the day take on a new and deeper meaning. The
tragedy of man is that he doesnt know how to distinguish between night and
day. He says things at night that should only be said by day. Pg4. Also,
according to their realigion, at midnight, the dead rise and go to the synagogue
to pray. At one point, during the night before Dawsons death, Elisha sees the
ghosts of his parents, and old Master, of his fiend Yerachmiel, and of a little
beggar boy. These ghosts help Elisha cope with what he is about to go through.

Throughout the book, there is a lot of mention of the war between the
Israelis and the British. At one point its said that, War is like night
it covers everything. I very much agree with this statement. War does cover
everything, mentally, physically, and ecologically; war has no care as to who it
hurts, why, or how. As Night is drawing closer to an end, Elisha realizes that
he doesnt want to go down to the basement, where John Dawson is being held,
and kill a man he has never known. Thats a cowardice thing to do in their
culture. I said that I wanted to go down before the time was up, to see the
fellow, and talk, and get to know him. It was cowardly, I said, to kill a
complete stranger. It was like war, where you dont shoot at men, but into the
night you never know whether any of the enemy was killed, or which one. To
execute a stranger would be the same thing. If I were to see him as only he
died, I would feel as if I shot at a dead man. This, I feel is another
powerful quote that makes good food for thought. I, and Im sure others as
well, cant even fathom what Elisha is going through. Elisha does go down to
meet John Dawson, about an hour before the dawn. He gets to know him, about his
life, and family. He even promises to mail a letter to Dawsons son after
hes killed. When the time comes, Elisha pulls the trigger, and although he
feels the agony that goes along with having to kill a man face to face, he does
feel a little sense honor, not necessarily for the cause, but for himself. This
book, I feel, is a definitely one to read. It shows a murderer from a view
that is rarely seen his own. And, its a rather quick read; the book
itself is of a decent length and the wording isnt difficult. It could easily
be read in a day. Dawn made me take a look at my own life, and place myself in
Ellishas position. It also takes a good look inside the fighting that went on
between the British, and the Israelis, as to give us a better understanding of
what really happens in a terrorist war.

Book Reports

Brave New World opens in a technically advanced fu

ture world. In the beginning of this book, we see theDirector of World Hatcheries lead the new hatchery students on a tour of a Conditioning Center in London
where babies are produced in bottles and pre-sorted to determine which class level they will be born
into. These class levels range from Alpha-plus, the highest level, to Epsilon-minus, the lowest. There
are no parents, and babies are conditioned from birth to learn certain behaviors.
All diseases have been eliminated, and when people are feeling down, they just take soma, a wonder drug.

Also, people are conditioned from birth not to love one person, so there is no marriage and most people
have many lovers. There is no God; instead, Henry Ford is worshipped as the god Ford. Another
accomplishment of this society is the elimination of aging.
Bernard Marx has unorthodox viewpoints and is outcast as an eccentric. He likes being alone, but in this
society being alone is discouraged. His isolation from society has made him very different from everyone
else. His only friend is Helmholtz Watson, an accomplished intellect who writes government propaganda.

Watson has grown wary of life as it is, and his supervisors have him under close watch.
Two co-workers are discussing Lenina Crowne, another worker, in a changing room. They act as if she were
property, able to be bought and sold. Bernard is disgusted by this, so he decides to ask Lenina to go to
a Savage Reservation in New Mexico.
Bernard visits the Director for permission to go. The Director tells a story of when he went to a Savage
Reservation with Linda, a pretty colleague. During their visit, Linda was lost, and the Director had to
So Bernard and Lenina go to the Savage Reservation, which is inhabited by Indians. They quickly find
Linda among the Indians. At first they do not realize who she is, but she explains what happened. Linda
is aged and obese. Also, Linda has a son named John who is the Director’s child. John is educated and
mature, having read Shakespeare (forbidden in civilization).
Bernard takes the two back to London for study. Once back, Linda takes too much soma, so she falls into a
coma. John is displayed by Bernard, who becomes a hero. But “the Savage” (as John is called) is
frightened by the new world he sees. The fear and oppression he experiences make him long for his old
life. Lenina becomes infatuated with John, and her candid attempts to make him love her end with his
becoming angry at her openness. John vows never to take soma, or to succumb to civilization. John
believes he can save himself if he avoids this brave new world. John enjoys conversations with Helmholtz,
and Bernard becomes jealous. They soon realize that the three of them are different from the rest of
At the bedside of his dying mother, John becomes enraged and throws the hospital soma supply out the
window. Helmholtz and Bernard arrive, and Helmholtz helps John destroy the narcotic. Bernard deserts the
two and calls a guard.
The three are taken to see Mustapha Mond, an elder wise man. Mond knows that all three harbor
revolutionary minds, so he tells them that their only option is to live on an island with other such
people. Mond then explains how society has developed without public knowledge of history or literature.

He explains that, in order to keep society at a balance where everyone is happy, only certain people can
read these books.
The two men leave for the island, but John takes up residence in an abandoned lighthouse. He tries to
“purify” himself from this awful society. Crowds soon come to see him, among them Lenina, whom he mauls
terribly. He is given soma. When he awakens, he realizes what he has done, and he hangs himself.
Huxley did an excellent job of portraying the possible future. The most prominent theme is alienation.

Helmholtz, John, and Bernard were shunned for not having conventional beliefs.
The future presented by Huxley is almost frightening, because in order to achieve happiness,
individuality and knowledge had to be sacrificed. Huxley wrote this book to warn us. He wanted us to know
that society should not be controlled, and that there is a price for a peaceful society. Since society is
still the same in the end, Huxley shows the same hopelessness that George Orwell showed in 1984.
I liked this book because Huxley paid attention to detail and created a thoroughly engrossing literary
masterpiece. Huxley’s “predictions” have begun to become reality. For instance, soma is strikingly
similar to prozac. Huxley’s thinking was truly ahead of its time.

Sonnet 29

Word Count: 370Sonnet #29
Despite popular belief, William Shakespeare was considered a great poet before a great playwright. He accomplished writing at least 154 sonnets and other poems of love. In this paper, I will analyze one of his greatest sonnets.
One of the most famous of his sonnets is number XXIX. This sonnet is one long sentence, but it still follows the usual Shakespearean pattern of three quatrains (four line sections) and a couplet. It also follows the traditional rhyme scheme for Shakespearian sonnets: ababcdcdefefgg.

The first quatrain tells how the narrator is feeling. From reading these four lines, you sense his loneliness and sense of abandonment by fate, G-d, love, and other men. I believe the key line in this quatrain is line 3 (When, in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes,). Here I feel Shakespeare is saying that this person who is
very depressed, is crying out for help to others, but he is such an outcast that not even “deaf heaven,” meaning God and the angels of heaven or listening to his cries.

The second quatrain starts off with a line that shows the narrator wishes to be more optimistic. He realizes that in order to achieve his goals, he must believe in himself first and stop being so depressed. The second half of the quatrain shows he is envious of other mens possessions and riches when he says, Desiring this man’s art and that man’s scope, With what I most enjoy contented least.

Moving into the third quatrain, you see that the speaker begins to reflect on himself and starts to compare himself with his friends. You know this when Haply I think on thee, and then my state, is said. Just as you start to think the speaker is going back into a state of self-pity, you realize the speakers inspired sprits are rising like the lark at break of day.

Sonnet XXIX ends with a couplet that has an uplifting message. One the speaker remembers the love of his friend and what great things he has, it makes him happy with his life. So happy he wouldnt even consider swapping his place with a king.

Phillip morris

Definition of Industry Market Concept
The tobacco industry consists of many competitors trying to satisfy a specific customer need. Companies such as Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, and Lorillard hold almost the entire market share in the tobacco industry. While each company has different advertising and marketing techniques, they all target the same customer group. Tobacco companies try their best to generate interest in their particular brand or brands. Companies market a number of attributes that usually include, but are not limited to: taste, flavor, strength, size and image in order to distinguish themselves from competitors (Business Week 179, November 29, 1999). However, all tobacco companies are satisfying the same needs. Many long-time smokers are addicted to the nicotine in cigarettes. They smoke because the nicotine is needed to help them feel normal (Focus group). Many addicts go through withdraw without nicotine. All tobacco companies have nicotine in their cigarettes, which fulfills the need of long-time smokers. Other smokers depend on cigarettes in social settings. Many smoke to look sophisticated and mature. Tobacco companies make many kinds of cigarettes that target different groups. Social smokers may perceive certain brands as more sophisticated, and therefore they shy away from other lesser-known brands. For example, a person who smoked generic cigarettes at the bar may be perceived as uncultured. On the other hand, the smoker with the Marlboro Lights may be more socially accepted because they have a brand name product (Focus group). Many types of cigarettes cater to the many markets of smokers who want to portray a certain image in social settings. Tobacco companies do not create the need to smoke, but try to generate interest in their particular brand (Hays, New York Times, November 24, 1999). Overall, the tobacco companies satisfy consumer demand for the millions of adult Americans who choose to use tobacco by providing differentiated products to different target markets of smokers.

Industry Concept
The tobacco industry has developed a rather large array of products. Companies such as Philip Morris, Lorillard, RJ Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson, as well as the other smaller competitors, all provide the same product- cigarettes. The tobacco industry is filled with fierce competitors. But underneath the brand names and images, the product is relatively the same. All tobacco companies produce an inhalant that is made with tobacco, tar, and nicotine. These materials are rolled in a special kind of slow-burning paper for longer smoking time. The cigarettes are approximately three to four inches long and come in packs of twenty to twenty-five. With so many similarities, one would think that the market would resemble that of a commodity. However, through brand marketing and promotions, each cigarette is uniquely different in the mind of the customer.
Boundaries The tobacco industry can be broadly or narrowly defined. Many products use tobacco as the main material. We chose to define the market by focusing on the tobacco and the way it is smoked. Companies such as Philip Morris, Lorillard, RJ Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson are the main competitors in the tobacco industry (Pollack, Advertising Age, August 30, 1999). They produce cigarettes, which are lit and the smoke is inhaled to the lungs. Tobacco products such as cigars, snuff, and chew are considered close substitutes to cigarettes. Cigar smoke is just taken into the mouth, but not inhaled like cigarettes. Snuff and chew do not even contain smoke, but are put on the skin for nicotine absorption. Companies such as Imperial Tobacco, which produce a wide array of chew and snuff products, would be considered a company that provides substitutes to cigarettes. They would not fall in the cigarette industry itself.
2 .Situation Analysis
2.1 Industry Structural Analysis
2.1.1 Threat of Entry
The tobacco industry has a very low threat of entry. A few powerful firms, such as Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard, and Brown and Williamson, control most of the industry (Pollack, Advertising Age, August 30, 1999). Any new entrants would be sure to receive heavy retaliation from the other companies fighting to keep their share of the lucrative industry. For example, Philip Morris is by far the industry leader with estimated tobacco sales of $46.7 billion is 1999 (Business Week 179, November 29, 1999). They have a huge base of resources with which to attack other competitor entrants. They could easily start promotions such as “buy one, get one free” or offer coupons at certain times during the year to discourage entrants to the industry. Many small companies will not be able to compete with the capital requirements in the tobacco industry. The barriers to entering the tobacco industry are numerous. First, the high volume of cigarette sales gives existing firms economies of scale, which would be a disadvantage for newcomers to the market. The products currently on the market are differentiated somewhat in their design, but mostly through the large advertising budgets that are used to promote them. Tobacco companies now pour $4 billion a year into promotions and advertising- nine times what they spent in 1971 (Elliot, New York Times, September 22, 1999). These firms have finely tuned distribution channels, which include legions of sales representatives that vie for shelf space. One of the biggest obstacles to a new entrant would be finding a decent place of the shelf with such heavy-handed competition already occupying that space. Store managers may be reticent to give away prime slots for fear of losing discounts or other offers from major players. Government policy is another possible deterrent to enter the market. Large settlements against the tobacco companies have been the norm in the past several years. Although gigantic companies like Philip Morris are able to handle the charges because of their extensive monetary resources, it is difficult to imagine how a small startup company would be able to burden the expense. Switching costs are very high in the tobacco industry. Many smokers are still smoking the same brand they first started smoking (Focus group). Even if the price of their brand is raised, they would not consider switching to another brand (Focus group). Many companies who would want to come into the industry would not easily take away market share, due to high brand loyalty.
2.1.2 Competitive Rivalry
The tobacco industry is a very competitive market. As mentioned above, about four very large corporations control the entire market. Philip Morris is the biggest company in the industry, but others such as Lorillard and growing in brand name (Pollack, Advertising Age, August 30, 1999). All companies battle for market share through heavy advertising budgets and slotting deals. The cigarette market is well into the maturity stage of the PLC, and some might even argue that given the recent anti-smoking campaigns and lawsuits the industry is nearing the decline phase. However, sales show that decline has not yet been reached. As mentioned before, Philip Morris has estimated tobacco sales of $46.7 billion (Business Week 179, November 29, 1999). Apparently, brand loyalty still exists. Buyers Retailers. The stores that sell tobacco products have a moderate influence on the market. Retailers have some power over manufacturers who need prime slotting to ensure strong sales. However, manufacturers have leveraged quite a bit of power by offering retailers special incentives for giving their products good placement or for installing certain numbers of brand advertisements around the store. To some stores, such as gas stations, losing a major cigarette brand would mean large loss of revenues from customers who would rather go to another gas station to locate their favorite brand. Also, companies are trying to develop closer relationships with bars and coffeehouses. Tobacco companies offer ashtrays, napkins, and matches, saving each buyer thousands of dollars in supply costs (Heuslein, Forbes, January 11, 1999). Retailers now are marketing the brand on coasters and napkins for the company. Consumers. The end-users in the industry also have moderate power. Brand loyalty is very high, and it has been shown that smokers generally chose a brand in their teen year and continue to smoke that brand the rest of their lives (Focus group). However, in the face of a dramatic price hike, consumers have been quick to notice that brands are interchangeable and then go for the lowest price. But the dearth of substitutes for tobacco products makes it difficult for the industry to lose customers all together. Suppliers The suppliers in the tobacco industry have a low level of influence, even though there is no close substitutes that the industry can use in place of tobacco. Tobacco is purchased from farmers, who essentially have to take the market-determined price for their crops. Tobacco is a commodity, so it makes no difference from which supplier a firm buys its materials. The large number of individual farms that supply the industry makes it almost impossible for anyone to raise the price. There is not a threat of forward integration from suppliers because they have none of the tools necessary to manufacture or market tobacco products. The farmers have only the land and equipment necessary to grow the leaf. If they were to try to produce cigarettes, they would probably not be able to compete with the many large companies that have economies of scale (from Threat of Entry section).
2.1.3 Substitutes
The affect of substitutes on profits is also low. Nicotine can be found in cigarettes, as well as cigars, chew, and snuff. But most people will not switch over to chew and snuff if the price of cigarettes rises. Chew and snuff do not substitute for the needs of a cigarette. Cigarettes are smoked for the nicotine and for social acceptance. Chew and snuff are not acceptable substitutes for most smokers; the nicotine is not inhaled but put on the skin for absorption.
3 . Profit Analysis
“Why are tobacco executives still smiling? Simple: They continue to rake in the huge profits from the category despite a decade-long stagnation in dollar and unit sales growth.” (Arrizza, Discount Merchandiser, p 97) Indeed, the tobacco industry has faced much opposition during recent years but still remains profitable. To be specific, there are two main reasons that the industry has continued to be prosperous: addiction and management practices. Government influence and lobbying have also played a smaller role. First, the strong addiction of tobacco has allowed for a very loyal following in the tobacco industry. In fact, most tobacco users are very brand-loyal and therefore less price sensitive than most would think. Not only does this bring in revenue for the companies themselves but for the wholesalers and retailers as well. “The average smoker still smokes 1.2 packs per day, which means strong profits for the industry as a whole” (Heuslin, Forbes, p 160). Buyer power is lower because the smokers depend on the cigarettes to fulfill their addictions. On average, the industry’s profit on cigarette sales is about 23 cents a pack. When the average store sells around 25 packs per day, the industry is bound to make substantial profits (Sullum, Reason, p 18). The loyalty of customers in tobacco has allowed for a successful forecast of future profits in the industry. The management practices of the tobacco industry have also contributed to the industry’s success. For example, The “Retail Masters” program has allowed for strong profits. “Retail Masters is a multi-level program of promoting brands in the retail environment. This program has the potential to increase a store’s cigarette sales by 11 percent” (Arrizza, Discount Merchandiser, p 99). Simply by getting better displays and shelf space, for instance, the tobacco industry could become more profitable. Buyer influence increases because they have the power to delegate displays and shelf space. Overall, if the industry were to constantly maintain better displays and shelf space, tobacco companies as a whole would have a better chance of achieving greater profits. Also, most tobacco companies are introducing new products in order to keep high profit margins. RJ Reynolds, for example, is in the final phase of conducting market studies on its latest product, Eclipse. The company claims the new product reduces second-hand smoke by nearly 90 percent, ridding itself of ash and odors ( Arrizza, Discount Merchandiser, p 98). Tobacco companies are also trying to get a better public image by producing public service announcements such as the “Be Smart, Don’t Start” campaign. And although the industry has been under close scrutiny as of late, their customers are impressed with the message. Again, the marketing management practices behind the tobacco industry bring a promise of strong future profits. As already stated, the profits of the industry look to be good, but there are a lot of changing conditions that might affect the future of the industry. For example, the new product inventions mentioned above could either help or harm the industry depending on how well they do. For example, the new Eclipse cigarette will more than likely be imitated by other competitors, who will also have to invest a great deal of capital to get the product on the market. And finally, tobacco companies are having to pay more and more money for court settlements. Profits can be decreased greatly if money the money is spent defending the company. The government is also a very limiting factor to tobacco. Just over the past decade, the government has passed so many laws that it has forced the tobacco companies to double their prices on cigarette packs. Although the customers still seem to be buying as they have in the past, there is certainly a price ceiling that a customer will not be willing to pay above. It is highly unlikely that the same customers who are currently paying less than three dollars a pack, will pay ten dollars for a single pack of cigarettes. However, if the government keeps increasing excise tax and still allots money to the prosecution during tobacco lawsuits, the industry will be severely handicapped. Overall, as the restrictions of the government increase and lawsuits are lost, the profits of the industry are bound to decrease.
Industry Environment
The tobacco industry is an environment with many strong competitors that have many opportunities in the market. There are also many threats, mostly imposed by the government. The tobacco companies play off each other for market share and innovate marketing strategies to fight back and keep the smoking demand. The tobacco industry has limited media coverage due to government restrictions placed over the past two decades. The tobacco companies have been prohibited from advertising on television and radio, and even more recently from billboards and outdoor posters because of the harmful side effects their products may cause. Since so many channels of marketing are closed for the tobacco industry, magazines are the most common method of advertising (Elliot, New York Times, September 22, 1999). Even with magazines and other legal forms of advertising, tobacco makers are still running into restrictions. In each magazine advertisement, a Surgeon General’s warning is required to appear with information about tobacco-related health risks that the product may lead toward. Companies have also been required to create advertisements solely about the harmful consequences of using tobacco products. These ads were a result of an advertising war between the tobacco industry and anti-tobacco campaigns. The tobacco companies were mocking the ads and celebrating those who continued to use tobacco. The government intervened and required the “tobacco warning advertisements” for all tobacco companies (Fairclough, Wall Street Journal, B12, 1999). The government has also intervened with tobacco marketing by altering the slogans and gimmicks the companies use. The government wants the companies to avoid targeting vulnerable markets, such as young children and teenagers under the legal smoking age of 18 years. Since government regulations have become such a threat to the tobacco industry, companies are coming up with creative ways to advertise and appeal to consumers. Some companies are developing “smoker’s lifestyle magalogs”, a combination of a magazine and catalog. The issues come out monthly and contain articles about travel, cooking, and shopping. The magalogs do not contain articles about smoking and do not have pictures of people smoking, but they do advertise tobacco products and accessories. The idea of the magalogs is to portray an image that a smoker’s lifestyle is fun and exciting (Wyatt, New York Times, C5, November, 24, 1999). Tobacco companies are hoping these magalogs will persuade the existing smokers to purchase more. In the past consumers have been proven to remain loyal to one company throughout their lives, but as tobacco prices have steadily increased several times, more brand switching from the premium brands to the lower priced one is occurring. The price increases are decreasing the demand for tobacco products as well. Figures show the number of smokers has decreased 10% in 1999 (Heuslein, Forbes, January 11, 1999). One of the main reasons for the price increases in the tobacco industry is that companies are trying to keep shareholders happy by paying them high dividends. Another reason is that companies need to cover the higher costs that they have incurred from legal settlements with state governments. The premium brand companies are also spending more money on advertising as the prices increase to keep their customers from switching to the lower-cost brands (Fairclough, Wall Street Journal, B12, 1999). The tobacco industry has many strong competitors with varied portions of market share. As of now, the price leader is Philip Morris. When they increase prices, other brands will follow the lead to avoid price wars. Any attempt to take away market share from the leader will result in more harm than good for the lower companies with less share. If a price war were to be started, Philip Morris, with its extensive capital, could easily outprice all other brands (Porter). The smaller tobacco companies could not compete and would soon go out of business. This type of competitive rivalry causes threats to all competitors. The companies with less market share want to follow the trends to avoid losing share no matter how high costs are, and they are trying to gain new consumers as well. The competitors have to watch the price leader carefully to make a competitive strategy. The price leader controls the industry and sets the “rules of the game”. But the opportunities of the leader and the other companies can be dampened by government regulations. As more restrictions are being placed in the tobacco industry, all companies will lose consumers if they do not find successful alternatives to marketing their products. Once the tobacco gain market share, it is somewhat easy to keep it. The addictive substances in tobacco products give the industry opportunities to keep consumers brand loyal and trying their new products. The environment of the tobacco industry is constantly changing with all of the threats and opportunities. Tobacco makers rely on the key success factor of image in all that they do. The new magalogs are another attempt to create a wanted tobacco user’s lifestyle, and they will continue to find alternatives around regulations to keep their image up as they fight hard in the competitive environment. Competitive Analysis
We have chosen Philip Morris and their brand of Marlboro. Philip Morris is the industry leader and is able to heavily promote and advertise a new product. Marlboro is one of the most well-known brands in the world. We could easily create a line extension and rely on the brand name for customer loyalty. The tobacco industry consists of many competitors striving to provide tobacco products that satisfy the consumer’s need to smoke. Companies such as Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, and Lorillard are the top four competitors in the tobacco industry that together hold almost all of the market share. While each company targets the same customer group, they have different advertising and marketing techniques. Philip Morris is by far the industry leader with tobacco sales of $46.7 billion (Business Week, 179, November 29,1999). The industry giant is responsible for the development of Marlboro, Virginia Slims, and Basic, three of the best-known brands on the market. Other than producing tobacco products, the company has expanded and purchased Kraft Foods in 1988, the largest food company in the United States in (Business Week 186, November 29, 1999). Kraft’s affiliation with Philip Morris has led to much scrutiny from anti-tobacco users and a decrease in profits. Philip Morris has a strong advantage with the Marlboro brand. Marlboro is one of the most well-known brands in the world. The brand loyalty to Marlboro will help Philip Morris keep customers. Lorillard is responsible for cigarette brand Newport, which is currently second behind Marlboro (Pollack, Advertising Age, August 30, 1999). Lorillard is the fasted growing brand in the cigarette category, but is still quite far behind Philip Morris (Pollack, Advertisng Age, August 30, 1999). Currently, the company is trying to introduce a new kind of cigarette that would directly compete with Marlboro. The new product would be a non-menthol cigarette, which is a first in the industry because most companies usually introduce menthol cigarettes. Lorillards strength is shown with its creativity. As long as they try new products, they can gain some market share from Philip Morris. Also, Lorillard is undertaking a series of print advertisements to expand on their commitment to responsibility. They are trying to become a more responsible company in the eyes of the public. RJ Reynolds, currently third in the standing, has undergone some recent changes in their corporation. In March of 1999, RJ Reynolds decided to sell its overseas cigarette unit to Japan Tobacco Incorporated and concentrate on its United States business (Hwang A3, Wall Street Journal, March 10, 1999). RJ Reynolds will use the money from the international sale to pay off large debts and to repostion in the market. RJ Reynolds is responsible for such brands as Monarch, Doral, and the ever-popular Camels. The weaknesses of our competitors are the weaknesses of the market. The lawsuits and government regulations have hindered many people from smoking. In the cigarette industry, there is not much difference within the products. Therefore, cigarette companies must market more heavily to increase brand awareness. Finally, the smaller companies must always watch that they do not compete head on with Marlboro, for fear of retaliation from Philip Morris. Competitive Analysis (Part B) As mentioned before, Philip Morris is the leader in the tobacco industry, with over twice the market share of its closest competitor, RJ Reynolds. After whom several international companies such as JTI, the Imperial Group and Brown and Williamson compete for the right to own the third spot in the industry. Much like Philip Morris, tobacco companies aim their sites through very general segmentation strategiesmen and women. Indeed, they too rely on a multi-segmented market to bring in the majority of their sales revenue. Not only that, but tobacco companies use several line extensions in order to gain market share in an attempt to overthrow the king Philip Morris. Several recent trends in competitive products have shown just that. For example, the scientific communities in both the United States and Europe have been developing new nicotine delivery systems in an attempt to transform the cigarette industry as we know it. Basically, the idea behind it all is to make a product with a controlled, gradual reduction in nicotine delivery. However, these new products are not quite that simple for companies to create. In fact, only one domestic tobacco company has attempted to commercialize a new type of nicotine delivery device. A few years ago, RJ Reynolds publicly announced a new type of cigarette called Premier. It was offered in two test markets in Arizona and Missouri. The markets did not do well and a little over one year later they closed. Premier was hard to light, did not burn down the way people wanted them to, smelled and tasted bad. But it had a number of key attributes: no ashes, very little second-hand smoke, and limited fire safety problems. (Freedman, 85, 1995) Maybe if those who had tried it had taken the time to acquire a taste for it, the product would have established itself as a mainstream smoke. Instead, it eventually failed. Since Premiers introduction, RJ Reynolds has continued to work on the product to try to improve the problems associated with it. This work, along with a large collection of project ideas on the way, is a strong indication that RJ Reynolds is doing its best to steal the number one position away from Philip Morris.(Freedman, 85, 1995) Not only that, but RJ Reynolds is not alone in its pursuit of a better smoke. Other activity has been noted form tobacco industry companies such as JTI, the Imperial Group, Procordia A.B., and Brown and Williamson. This can be easily seen as a strong indicator that several companies have extensive interest in the development of a superior nicotine delivery device. Through all of this, the outsider can easily see that the competition of Philip Morris is trying to gain market share in the tobacco industry and eventually overthrow the strongest company in the industry, Philip Morris. (Freedman, 85, 1995)
Value Chain Analysis
Philip Morris creates value in a number of ways, from product design to getting the product into the customers hand. Many parts of this value chain have been strategically used to build a competitive advantage in the cigarette industry. As discussed earlier, research and design are an important part of Philip Morris strategy. They are constantly trying to find ways to make their products better, safer, or more convenient for the customer to use. A product like cigarettes may seem impossible to improve on, but time and again they have made minor improvements that have added to their differentiation in the market, such as the flip-top box and the soon-to-be-released slow-burning paper, which should reduce cigarette related fires significantly. Even though cigarettes cause cancer and a myriad of other fatal illnesses, Philip Morris wants customers to know that they are looking out for their safety. A discussion of Philips Morris value chain cannot ignore their operational advantages, such as the economies of scale they have achieved by being the biggest supplier of tobacco products in the market. They also have made a number of production oriented advancements that have allowed them to produce high quality products at sufficiently low cost to buffer profits. The marketing aspects of the value chain are the points where Philip Morris has related differentiated itself. Promotion, distribution, and overall marketing clout and prowess have made brands such as Marlboro industry leaders and the envy of marketers everywhere. Distribution is a function which Philip Morris has mastered. Anywhere that sells cigarettes carries most of their brands, and always carries the top brands such as Marlboro. Convenience stores, gas stations, discount stores, bars; the list goes on and on. In distribution, Philip Morris is the industry leader, and the other firms watch and learn. Most of Philip Morris differentiation has been achieved through aggressive promotional strategies. They spend a great deal of money and effort getting out the message about their products in all (legal) media. The campaigns they use are seen as cutting-edge by customers and the industry. A powerful, inescapable message that Philip Morris brands are the best cigarettes on the market have been a key factor in the success of the company. An important ingredient to their formula success has been a clever branding strategy that seems to leave no segment without the perfect brand. With eighteen individual brands of smokes, each smoker is almost certain to be able to find one the fits his or her particular image or lifestyle. And although Philip Morris is a megabrand, it is not a powerful one. The company name is stamped on all of its products and customers often know which company produces their brand, but who can say what makes a cigarette a Philip Morris? The individual brands have much more power than the megabrand, and they are what have a vivid position in each consumers mind. Indeed, Philips Morris skillful branding is a major competitive advantage for the company. Philip Morris has built and deployed an effective sales force to build strong relationships with cigarette retailers, and with great success. In any given store, one is likely to notice Marlboro and the rest of the Philip Morris family in a prominent place at eye level. The company has also developed a rewards program whereby retailers actually get paid for giving them freedom in the store. Retailers get points for things like point of purchase displays, in-store advertising and prime slotting, and of course for doing the opposite with other companies products, and the retailers get money back or credit for the points. This strategy has given Philip Morris a big advantage at the point of purchase by making retailers happy. Linkages Through the variety of effective linkages Philips Morris has carefully constructed over their years of deft marketing practices, they have built a competitive advantage that is seemingly rock solid. Philip Morris uses its large market share to help it leverage for shelf space. Although the aggressive sales tactics described above are used to get total retailer cooperation, they do not have to use such persuasive techniques to simply get good shelf space. No cigarette seller would think of eliminating Marlboro from their shelves, for instance. Due to the high demand for their products, buyer (retailer) power is limited. Not all tobacco companies have this sort of power. The strong promotional tactics that they employ give them much of the power that they have over retailers. By giving their products such appeal and differentiation, customers will not be satisfied without them. This strong demand forces the hands of retailers. Strategy At this point, it would be difficult to make very strong recommendations to Philip Morris for strategic change. The strategy that they have formulated has worked extraordinarily well for them. As the strong market leader, the most important thing for them at this point is to not fall asleep at the wheel. They must stay one step ahead of competitors at all times and resist complacency. A flexible strategy that stays in touch with changing consumer wants and needs is paramount to remaining on top of the industry. However, Philip Morris should be using a defensive strategy. From their market leader position, they should focusing much of their attention on blocking the offensive moves of competitors to ensure that market share is not eroded. At the same time, they should be constantly finding ways to improve the current product line. Brands that are weak should be repositioned or replaced with more appealing ones. Popular brands have to be monitored to ensure that they remain vital and profitable. Kotler would suggest building the total market, that is, creating a larger demand for cigarettes overall. This is a sound strategy, but may be a difficult one for Philip Morris to pursue, for social as well as legal reasons. Such efforts must be undertaken with care so as not to offend or prompt litigation. As long as Philip Morris is able to market their products carefully while avoiding stagnation, they should enjoy market leadership for a long time to come.
Potential Segmentation Dimensions
There are hundreds of different kinds of cigarettes available in todays market. It can be hard to choose which cigarette to buy and pinpointing the differences between brands can be even harder. Besides brand name recognition, tobacco companies look at segmentation dimensions in order to clarify whom the cigarette is for and what features it has to offer to smokers. When the first studies that indicated lung cancer was directly related to smoking came out, smokers began to look for substitutes that would provide a healthier alternative. Philip Morris was the first company to take a step in the right direction by introducing Marlboro. The filtered cigarettes were believed to be healthier and reduce the chance of developing cancer. Since then, more companies have introduced their own version of a healthier cigarette. Tobacco companies introduced such innovations as light and ultra light cigarettes. Light cigarettes are made with less tar; ultra lights have almost no tar in them. The concept of light cigarettes opens up the field of opportunity for smokers. They can now be more health conscious when choosing a cigarette, but light cigarettes can still cause cancer. Cost is another concern when it comes to smokers. Research shows that most smokers are brand loyal and do not pay attention to price, but there is a possibility that some do buy the cheapest brand available. By offering a lower priced brand, tobacco companies can help to gain market share and broaden their variety and assortment of products. Not all current tobacco companies offer a low price cigarette; they tend to focus their strength on their top brand. Gender is segmented within the tobacco industry. Brands like Mistys, Virginia Slims, and Carlton are aimed at the female population. Men have the Marlboro Man; women have slimmer and slender cigarettes. The tobacco industry has been trying to also segment ethnicity, but has failed in the past. One example is the brand Uptown, distributed by RJ Reynolds, which was aimed at African Americans. Many critics felt that the tobacco industry, as well as RJR, were exploiting and encouraging minorities to smoke. Virginia Slims is currently running ads that target many cultures by showing their brand as a cigarette to be smoked by all women worldwide. Flavored cigarettes are becoming an industry favorite. Menthol cigarettes used to be the only choice available for a different taste. In todays market, there are many alternatives to menthol and regular cigarettes popping up around the industry. Camel is currently marketing new citrus and vanilla flavored cigarettes. These cigarettes come in regular, light, and ultra light varieties and offer a different perspective on smoking. Camel also is offering different blends of cigarettes that are made with Turkish and domestic tobaccos, all giving off a different taste. Marlboro was the first brand to alter the appearance of the cigarette package by offering a flip-top box. The idea caught on quickly and now most cigarette packages do have the flip-top box. This little innovation made cigarettes less messy and easier to keep track of. Today, there are still soft and hard packages being offered to the smoking community. Each package comes wrapped in a cellophane seal to help protect the box, but can be removed for immediate use. Cigarette box designs have not really changed much since the 1950s, but there is room for improvement.
Targeting Strategy
Philip Morris has adopted the strategy that they are committed to marketing their tobacco products to adults who choose to smoke. So what is an adult? By company standards, an adult is a person who is at least 21 years old. Philip Morris markets to adults by using a multiple-segment targeting strategy. Product specialization has worked well for the company over the last forty years. They have developed a series of brands that are very popular and well known among the smoking population. Philip Morris has also used market specialization to its advantage. The Marlboro Man is an example of how market specialization has been a success with the public. Marketing Strategy After a failed attempt to target women in the 1920s and 30s, Philip Morris pulled Mild As May brand cigarettes off the market. At the time, the country was engulfed in WWII and people were rationing cigarettes. When the war was over, cigarette consumption skyrocketed, but new studies coupled cigarette smoking with lung cancer. Consumers were outraged and felt betrayed by their brands. There had never been much shift in brand preference before, even considering price and model differences. But consumers felt mislead and dropped their allegiances with old brands. Philip Morris saw this as an opportunity to reintroduce their Mild As May brand, but the product had undergone a drastic makeover. Trying to attract old smokers who feared lung cancer, Philip Morris introduced Marlboro brand to the public in 1955. Marlboro was a filtered cigarette that would be safer for all consumers. There was only one problem; filtered cigarettes were viewed as sissy and feminine. Philip Morris needed to assure male smokers that Marlboro was the right cigarette for them. Marlboro launched a new advertising campaign entitled the Tattooed Man campaign. The Tattooed Man gave off the image of a new Marlboro smoker. Men were portrayed as lean, rugged, merited respect, relaxed, and outdoors oriented. Naval officers, ranchers, and airmen represented a Tattooed Man, all showing that filter cigarettes were not at all sissy or feminine. The mens hands were calloused and rough, depicting they were hardworking and demonstrating that filtered cigarettes were not sissy. Marlboro developed full-page black and white advertisements that featured information on the filter and a new flip-top box. The campaign was a success and turned Marlboro into a top selling filtered cigarette overnight. As the campaign continued, researchers used different personalities to find the ideal Marlboro representative. The cowboy emerged as the most popular character and has gone on to represent what a Marlboro cigarette is today. When the Marlboro Man was first introduced to the public, Philip Morris had to explain him. Life ran an article on who and what the Marlboro Man was in January 1957, where each frame pictured the cowboy talking about freedom, smoking, and ranching out West. The articles purpose was to draw in men and make them jealous of a lifestyle that they did not possess. This introduction led to many more educational ads over the years, which in turn has led to silent, beautiful image-filled ads featured in present day magazines. Without words, the Marlboro Man takes you to a place that many consumers have come to know very well: Marlboro Country. Consumers have also become very familiar with the Marlboro flip-top box. The design is very important to Marlboro smokers, as discovered by Forbes magazine in 1987. At that time, Forbes polled smokers by giving them two different packages of Marlboro cigarettes. One box was the standard red with black, bold lettering on it. The other box contained unaltered Marlboro cigarettes dressed in a generic brown wrapping and at half price. Only 21% were interested in the generic brown box, which proves that consumers prefer the bright red packaging (http://xroads.virginia.edu/CLASS/marlboro/mman3.html). The box symbolizes membership into an elite club that recognizes the Marlboro Man as their spokes-person. Currently, tobacco industry advertising standards are very harsh. Banned from television and any print media that is targeted at people under 21, Marlboro must make use of its minimal space. Marlboro Man ads can still be seen in magazines like Time and Life, and even on some billboards, but overall advertising has diminished. As stated earlier, Marlboro ads no longer explain anything because consumers are well educated and understand their meaning. Modern ads depict cattle running through a field, a mountain scene with wranglers herding cattle, or just the stereotypical Marlboro Man quietly holding his cigarette in his hand. Men understand the message and privately long to be a true Marlboro Man, which is what Philip Morris and Marlboro have been working on for over forty years. Focus group The focus group consisted of people with basically the same demographic information. Three males and three females participated in the focus group, each around the age of 21. Every person was from the Midwest, and many attended Truman State University. All the participants in the focus group now smoke Camel Lights or Marlboro Lights. Almost all the participants smoke the brand they had started with. Friends in high school were a main factor in deciding which brand to smoke. One girl had even started smoking the brand her mother used. Many started to smoke a particular brand, became accustomed to the taste, and have never changed. Price is not even a consideration. Although Camel Lights and Marlboro Lights have the highest prices compared to most brands of cigarettes, the people in the group would not switch to another brand even if the price of the competitor’s brand was extremely low. Apparently, the switching costs are high in the tobacco industry. Each group member feels a high emotional connection with their particular brand, and would not consider switching brands. The participants basically smoke because they believe they are addicted to the nicotine in the cigarettes. Many feel that smoking is a relaxing activity. Some agreed that social smoking was enjoyable. For example, Female 1 and Male 1 like to smoke while at the bar. (Interview, p 3) The gas station was a popular place to buy cigarettes, mainly for the convenience. Some group participants liked to stop at the gas station on their way to work or school. One participant, Female 3, buys her cigarettes at the bar where she works, which is convenient for her. Still others, like Female 1 and Male 1, buy their cigarettes at Walmart because the price is cheaper. (Interview, p 3) Male 1 sometimes has trouble getting his cigarettes from the gas station after the weekend because they are usually sold out. Also, the participants prefered hard packs, but most would but a soft pack if hard packs were sold out. Overall, the participants were satisfied with the current product. Some participants were annoyed with the amount of wrapping on the boxes, but others thought that the wrapping protected the cigarettes better. (Interview p3) The price was considered to be high, but everyone would pay to get their favorite brand. The participants were dissatisfied with the soft packaging; the cigarettes were not well protected. Most group members did not like the smell that the cigarettes left on their clothing, but did not have a solution to the problem. Male 3 had a problem with the smell, because his girl friend did not like it, and a problem with the after taste. But these complaints would not stop anyone from smoking. The severity of the problems is not great, but a few ideas have been raised. The tobacco companies need to look at the problems of aftertaste, smell of smoke, and packaging. Soft packs were not liked by any participants. More hard packs should be distributed. One point that surprised us was the excitement for prepacked cigarettes. Tobacco companies might have a marketing strategy with prepacked cigarettes. The high price of the cigarettes was noted within the group, but each was willing to pay for their particular brand. Tobacco companies do not need to lower price because the members of the group were still willing to pay. They all saw the brands of cigarettes as being very differentiated, and therefore the industry has very high switching costs. It was also noted that the participants still smoked the same brand of cigarettes that they started out with. Many have not even bothered to try different brands. This is a key point that the tobacco companies need to focus on. If they can get people to start smoking their brand first, then they have a good chance of having that person making a repeat purchase. The tobacco industry is seen by consumers to be very differentiated, allowing the companies to charge higher prices and creating high switching costs.
Current Marketing Mix
Philip Morris Marlboro is currently in the mature life cycle. The cigarette industry as a whole is in this life cycle. The objectives for the mature stage are to extend the life cycle for Marlboro by maintaining the brand leader position, advertising image, and cannibalizing the product. Marlboro needs to watch competition (RJ Reynolds and Brown and Williamson), maintain high brand loyalty to keep brand leadership, and continue with creating a socially conscious company. The creating of this image as a socially conscious company is a company wide customer orientation. What has helped them remain on top is their size advantage, experience, and well-defined target. Some specific areas that Philip Morris needs to focus on are sales growth, profits, customers, and competition. These will be discussed briefly. We will elaborate on the factors product, pricing, promotion, and distribution in greater detail. Marlboro is currently in a growth maturity stage for sales growth. Although the industry is in the mature life cycle, Marlboro still controls a majority of the share and sales are increasing (1999 Annual Report). With the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, where Philip Morris had to pay a large settlement to past consumers for with holding information about the harmful effects of smoking, sales still increased from 1998 to 1999. This is mostly due to the high brand loyalty of consumers (focus group). As mentioned above, due to the high and unusually strong brand loyalty of the market, profits have increased even with stricter laws and regulations. Pending litigation, smoking could become even more expensive than it already is. Taxes could be imposed to increase price per pack, which would hurt profits if consumers start buying cheaper brands. If government raises the price per pack as a standard and consumers remain brand loyal, profits could increase for the company. Marlboro targets adults over twenty-one and will not use anybody in an advertisement who looks younger than twenty-five. They wish to retain current customers and try to discourage youth smoking. Many smokers start smoking in high school and remain loyal to the brand they start smoking (focus group). Though reality and their strategy are incongruent, they try to target current consumers. The three big competitors in the tobacco industry are Philip Morris (market leader), RJ Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson. Philip Morris (Marlboro) and RJ Reynolds (Camels) own the two main brands. Due to the price increases delegated by the government, cheaper non-premium brands are catching price sensitive customers. If such price increases persist, competition could increase as well. That is only if the prices increase so much that brand loyalty sways. We would like to discuss how these stated strategies of Marlboro effect Porters Five Forces. Buyers are an overall weak force in that they are so brand loyal, they will pay inflated prices for product. They do expect more from the parent company that helps explain the Philip Morris Foundation, a community service charity ran by the people of Philip Morris, and the new slogan for Philip Morris, Working to Make a Difference. The People of Philip Morris. The main reason buyers are a weak force is because of their strong, unwavering brand loyalty. Competitive rivalry is intense in the tobacco industry. With the changing view of smoking by society from one-time glamorous to now outcast and increasing government restrictions with price increases, the consumer pool is dwindling. Luckily, Philip Morris Marlboro has an advantage as brand leader. The three main competitors are struggling to maintain market share, and Philip Morris is succeeding in remaining the market leader. New entrants in the tobacco industry are rare. It is later in the life cycle, so many would-be new entrants are dissuaded by many factors. First is the sheer size of the established competition. They have the upper hand with economies of scale, experience curve, channels of distribution, and high brand loyalty. New entrants also are thwarted from entering the tobacco market by the uncertain future of the market. The pending legal dealings, increased restrictions, and mandated price increases makes the environment risky for new entrants. There are high barriers to entry. Being that the cigarette industry is in the mature life cycle, the number and availability of substitutes should be numerous. There are a few substitutes to cigarettes like chew, snuff, and cigars, but none truly substitute the cigarette. Unlike perfume were the smell is similar enough or clothes that fit well and look nice, the taste and experience of smoking your brand of cigarettes can not be duplicated. This inability to reproduce the experience and taste makes the substitution uncommonly weak for the mature life cycle. As mentioned in the new entrants, channels of distribution are established and the high demand from the brand loyal customers weakens the power of distributors. This is the environment for Marlboro in reference to Porters Five Forces. Although it does not follow the text book definition of the mature life cycle, it is due mainly to the unique industry of tobacco. The competitive strategy of Marlboro is differentiation. Marlboro has a perceived uniqueness industry wide by consumers. The uniqueness of the brand name Marlboro and its image, quality, and taste, is highly valued by customers. The customers value it enough to pay higher prices for the Marlboro brand. Marlboros strategy of differentiation has remained stable and consistent. There are three main strategies Philip Morris has chosen to help differentiate Marlboro. The company has increased the service quality of quick responsiveness to complaints and compliance to federal regulations, assurance of a quality product purchased, and empathy for consumers (smokers and non-) through the services of the Philip Morris Foundation. Philip Morris has differentiated by reputation and brand image as well. The company has remained consistent in their image as a high quality product and an American tradition. Their market expertise, as market leader, has also allowed them to differentiate their product. This strategy reinforces the image as a stable company and plays up the companys longevity and dominance in the market. The current position of Marlboro has been mentioned many times as the brand leader. As the brand/market leader, Marlboro has to defend their position and territory against competition (which as mentioned before is very intense). Luckily for Marlboro, the defensive position is the preferred position. It has becoming increasingly difficult to defend position pending legal results from numerous cases set against Philip Morris and other tobacco companies. If excise taxes ensue (which would increase price of cigarettes by federal government and state) they could lead to a decline in sales, a decline of volume for the entire industry, and a shift from the premium segment (Marlboro and Camels) to the discount segment (GPC) (1999 Annual Report). Given Philip Morris superior defensive position currently, it enables them to have defenses against environmental factors Porter identified as the Five Forces. Marlboro being a differentiated premium brand, this creates a buffer with high price and low cost. The consumers are brand loyal and less price sensitive. New entrants have barriers to entry due to Marlboro’s brand leader position. The barriers include the high emotional switching cost from Marlboro to a new brand due to high brand loyalty, the high product differentiation Marlboro has created and maintained, and the economies of scale and established distribution channels the com from Marlboros experience. The buffer previously mentioned for the defense against the threat of new entrants, also is a defense against competitive rivalry. It is with this buffer that Philip Morris has the excess resources to fight, identified as the Principles of Force by Ries and Trout. The expertise of the company in the mature industry also is a powerful defense against competitors. As the market leader and the high brand loyalty, Marlboro is less susceptible to price wars. For some of the same reasons mention above, Marlboro has similar defense against buyers. Being less susceptible to price wars because of the high brand loyalty helps the company have greater control over pricing. This could change, though, with price increases and pending excise taxes. For now it does not seem to be a problem, but the future of the industry is uncertain. But for now as market leader, Marlboro can create expectations of higher quality products and service. The buffer so prominent in many of the factors defends against suppliers. The defense against substitutes is Marlboros decreased susceptibility to a price ceiling and the brand name loyalty advantage. Due to the position of market leader, Philip Morris and Marlboro have strong defenses against factors in the industrial environment. Their defensive position allows them these perks and if the market is not too effected by litigations pending, it looks to be a very sustainable advantage. Growth strategies of Marlboro have been product development or line extensions. They have created new products like Marlboro Lights and Marlboro Menthol and introduced them in the same market. They have also employed a family of branding such as specific brands (Marlboro, Virginia Slims, and Newport) that target certain segments and offer different images. Marlboro is well positioned and successfully maintaining the leadership position in the mature life cycle stage. They have retained this position through differentiation and product development. These have helped and will continue to help, if the market stays stable, Marlboro extend the mature life cycle and remain market leader. Now we are going to focus and emphasis some major factors in the current marketing mix not yet discussed. These factors are the product, pricing, promotion, and distribution. The product strategy is differentiation and being widely available through distribution. As market leader, Marlboro has taken the Defensive Warfare. They have had the courage to attack themselves through line extensions, and have expanded the market with their family of brands. Strengths of their product position is that the company has a strong position. They are not over, under, confused, or doubtful in their positioning of Marlboro. It makes sense, is not too narrow, is stable and consistent, and consumers believe in the higher quality of the brand. The high brand loyalty and perceived higher quality help the positioning of the product to be strong. Some weaknesses of the product are mainly environmental. Societys view of smoking has changed. Smoking used to be considered glamorous and beautiful, now most buildings are smoke free. Smokers have to huddle outside in rain, sleet, and shine and enjoy their cigarettes. Restrictions on advertising for tobacco products have increased. Outdoor advertising has recently been taken away. The only traditional medium appropriate to find tobacco product advertisements is print. There have also been legal backlashes due to health risks of nicotine use. A negative view of tobacco companies that is prominent in society is one of shiftiness and shadiness. Plus in medium unavailable to the tobacco companies, there has been an influx of anti-smoking campaigns. But even with all of the weaknesses of the market, Marlboro has remained brand leader. The branding strategy of Philip Morris, as mentioned before, is family of branding. Marlboro follows a family branding strategy. Marlboro would be considered the megabrand and Marlboro Lights/ Ultra Lights/ Menthol would be considered the subbrands. This some what follows Ries and Ries 22 Laws of Immutable Branding. Ries and Ries say that family of branding is good, while family branding takes away from the product. Marlboro follows many of the suggestions made by Ries and Ries. Marlboro has a unique and one of a kind name that helps set it apart from other cigarettes. Marlboro also owns a word, that word is rugged. The cowboy, who embodies a sense of a great American tradition, represents this ruggedness. There are many characteristics highly valued in our society that are related directly to cowboy. Marlboro has also been continuously consistent in their brand imaging (with the cowboy) and packaging. Changes have been slight and industry wide, like the introduction to Lights, Ultra Lights, and hard packs. Some other ways in which Marlboro follows Ries and Ries suggestions are their law of color, law of quality, and law of extensions. As mentioned above, Marlboro has followed Ries and Ries law of consistency. They have done this not only in the handling of their brand image, but also in the look of their packaging. Marlboro does not follow all of the suggestions from Ries and Ries. One is their law of publicity. With all of the trials impending and the changed view of society on smoking and tobacco companies, publicity has not helped the product or the market. Though the Philip Morris Foundation would be an excellent vehicle for publicity, they have decided to advertise. If they would let the newspapers and reporters take the drivers seat, consumers might believe it more. Even with all of the problems the industry is seeing, Marlboro is still the brand leader. The high brand loyalty is the key factor to Marlboros dominance in the market. They achieved brand loyalty by being first movers, becoming established, quality of their product, and consistency. This has helped them endure through the turbulent times in the industry. Brand equity is also very important to the product. Marlboro has a lot of brand equity. It has high brand loyalty that increases trade leverage, attracts new customers, and gives consumers a reassurance in you product. The high brand awareness is due in part of it being brand leader. Marlboro sticks out in the mind of consumers, including non-smokers because of familiarity, and is seen as a brand to consider. The perceived quality is very high for Marlboro. It is positioned as a premium brand and the price leader. Marlboro is also closely associated with its parent company, Philip Morris. Philip Morris is currently creating an image as a socially conscious company. This indirectly creates a positive image for Marlboro. And as the market leader, Marlboro has a competitive advantage. All of these factors increase Marlboros brand equity. This brand equity helps the consumer by increasing satisfaction, confidence in purchase and helps them to process information by setting a reference point. Brand equity helps the firms by assisting in creating efficient and effective marketing programs, increasing brand loyalty, to independently set prices, aid in brand extensions, increase trade leverage, and competitive advantage. This is shown through the increase of shares from 1998 to 1999 (1999 Annual Report) even though there has been an increase in restrictions. The increases help demonstrate the power of brand equity. The nineties ushered in a time of relationship marketing. Customer Services programs were the most popular way many companies played the new game. Marlboro and Philip Morris are no different. Marlboro offers Marlboro Miles to their customers. Collect a certain amount of miles and order items out of a catalogue them have Marlboro written all over them. This gives current customers perk and draws in new customers. Philip Morris started the Philip Morris Foundation, a service charity and created a new slogan. Their community service relief is aiding in creating a new image for the Philip Morris company. Instead of a seedy, shady cigarette manufacture, Philip Morris is helping society and is socially conscious. Some recommendations for Philip Morris and Marlboro are to let the news organizations cover your good work. Perhaps send out press releases of activities the Philip Morris Foundation are involved in. Dont stop the advertisements, it creates awareness and since Marlboro and Philip Morris are so closely associated it helps separate them during the legal mess and hopefully will have a carry-over effect from Philip Morris to Marlboro. They need to continue the programs that are working for them. These things are the consistent image of the brand, being a first mover to comply with government regulations, and in creating the image of a socially conscious company. They also could introduce a new product, a line extension, of the brand leader Marlboro. They need to introduce a product that offers what no other cigarette offers, waterproof packaging. Pricing Strategy Marlboro is a very well known company with many subsidiaries. The pricing strategy followed by the tobacco portion of the company is one where the primary objective is to simply sell the most products possible through promotions and brand-loyalty. For the first part, demand has been proven to be inelastic. Even if the United States Government enacts bills where cigarette taxes grow even further, customer brand-loyalty will still exist strongly. In fact, history has shown that demand is very, very inelastic, meaning higher prices dont necessarily translate into equivalent reductions in consumption. (Kennedy, p30, June 1998) Indeed, the one out of six tobacco smokers that use Marlboro products have proven their preference not to change. Secondly, Marlboro uses a fair amount of discounting in order to retain its customer base. The company, two times a year, will run promotions where consumers can buy two packs and receive a third for free. This has been shown to not only keep customers who are loyal to Phillip Morris, but will also tend to take away from the competition. According to the article, Experts Pick: Marlboro, by Nathaniel Kennedy, every time the campaign is launched, Marlboro gains a substantial portion of market share. (Kennedy, p31, June 1998) However, competitors have follwed the lead of Marlboro. They too run the same promotions that, in turn, balance out the market share that Marlboro had just recently taken. Because competition is so fierce, the majority of Marlboro pricing strategy is to promote lower prices. In fact, Marlboroshows that you dont have to make cars and trucks to make money. It has the second-highest profit margins among the top-ten U.S. manufacturers.(Hedden, p26, October 1996) The reason being is simple. Marlboro does not sell low enough for it to be considered a generic, but it does keep its prices compatible with its closest competitors. For example, in Mexico, Marlboro and its Mexican producer Cigarrera La Tabacelera Mexicana are temporarily reducing the price of Marlboro cigarettes in Mexico by 20%. (p2, March 1997) The move is an attempt to beat the competition of cigarette smugglers, who are illegally importing the cheaper U.S.-manufactured cigarettes and selling them at steep discounts. Furthermore, the company must fight in the face of many legal competitors as well. With three main competitors, RJ Reynolds, Brown ; Williamson and Lorillard, Marlboro strives to keep its products at a quality level and it prices competitive with the other leaders in the industry. The aforementioned laws of the United States governments have also proved to be a stiff competitor to the companys overall successes. Through maintaining low prices, an inelastic demand and well-placed discounts, Marlboro share of the market is more than doubling its closest rival. However, that demand could easily switch hands at any time. Marlboro relies too heavily upon brand-loyalty to assume that it would always be the leader. Newcomers are plentiful, and it will take a lot of work for the company to maintain its current market share. Indeed, with cigarette prices on the rise as much as they are, consumers are more likely to become, in the future, more price-sensitive than they currently are. If Marlboro falls into the age-old trap of incumbent inertia, there is a good possibility that the corporation will lose their number one spot in the industry. To prevent market loss, Marlboro needs to pay close attention to consumers preferences and any new additions to the industry (such as a less harmful cigarette). Marlboro will be able to keep on top of the game. Technology is the key here, and the corporation must do everything possible to be ahead of it. Promotion Strategy The biggest problems that Marlboro faces today are health problems and advertising to children. To combat these issues, the company uses a substantial amount of promotion and goodwill to keep its high-quality name. For the first part, the company is constantly giving to charities and running television comm
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Character Analysis: Jim Casy

Bradford Wright
Jim Casy is the most interesting character we have met so far. The
former preacher has a colored past and he seems to be moving into a
completely different point in his life. Although he has given up the life
of a preacher, Casy still has the instincts of a preacher to help those in
need. Jim Casy decidedly does not believe in the church anymore, but he
does have very strong emotions and opinions about life and how it should be
lived. He tries to keep himself from preaching his opinions to others, but
he still has the need to speak his mind no matter how sheepishly.

Jim Casy decides to go west with the Joad family to start off his new
life as a reformed preacher. “Gonna lay in the grass open an’ honest with
anyone that’ll have me. Gonna cus an’ swear an’ hear the poetry of folks
talkin’. All that’s holy, all that’s what I didn’ understan’. All them
things is the good things.” (pg.128) He wants to try and understand people
and connect with them in a way that he could not as a “holy man”. Casy
believes that the real important things in life are not found in the bible,
but rather in the everyday lives of people, especially the simple people
living regular lives. He feels he can learn more from just listening to
Tom and his family then he ever did studying the scriptures and solving
peoples’ problems.

Jim Casy is very reserved and quiet, unless prompted into a topic or
conversation. Once he gets hold of an idea, though, he runs with it and
tries to get across the way he looks at the world. “Oh, I’m a talker! said
Casy. “No getting’ away from that. But I ain’t preachin’. Preachin’ is
tellin’ folks stuff. I’m askin’ ’em. That ain’t preachin’, is it?”
(pg.128) Jim has a very deep and inquisitive mind. He spends a lot of his
life thinking. So when he becomes involved in a topic all the questions
and ideas he has going through his head start emptying out into a drawn out
speech. What comes out is not necessarily structured and may not even
makes sense sometimes, but he makes you think. This is what makes Jim Casy
so intriguing, when he says something you have to thoroughly examine what
he says in order to fully appreciate it. If you just read the words at
face value then you lose much of the meaning. Any character that makes the
reader think is always interesting and how he develops in his new lifestyle
will be the most interesting progression of all.


Smog has been around for a pretty long time, people just knew it as something else. Smog comes from the word smoke and fog, and that’s practically what it is. It was a serious problem before, before nature and humans went unharmed in the presence of smog but now it’s serious. What does all of this polluted air do to the body? The answer depends on the situation. How long a person is exposed to pollution, the type and concentration, the place, time and day, temperature, weather and more.
But one thing is certain: Smog is harmful to your health. Lungs are ozone’s primary target. Studies on animals show that ozone damages cells in the lung’s airways, causing inflammation and swelling. It also reduces the respiratory system’s ability to fight infection and remove foreign particle. Ozone may pose a particular health threat to those who already suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. About 10% of the basins approximately 14 million residents fit into this category. Ozone may also pose a health threat to the young, elderly and cardiovascular patients.
Ozone affects healthy people as well. In 1990, the State Air Resources Board established a new health advisory level in response to mounting evidence that smog affects healthy, exercising adults at lower levels than previously believed. Now, a health advisory is issued at .15 parts per million (on the pollutant standards index) before a first stage smog alert is called when ozone levels reach .20 ppm.
During a health advisory, everyone, including healthy adults and children are advised to avoid prolonged, vigorous outdoor exercise. Susceptible individuals, including those with heart or lung disease, should avoid outdoor activities until the advisory is canceled.
Currently, the federal Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing the adequacy of the federal health standard for ozone and is considering tightening it.

The sources of pollution include emissions from on-road vehicles, non-road vehicles like planes, ships and trains, industries, and even small businesses and households where polluting products are used.
Ozone, an invisible gas, is not emitted directly into the air, but forms when nitrogen oxides from fuel combustion and volatile organic gases from evaporated petroleum products react in the presence of sunshine. Ozone levels are highest during the warm months when there is strong sunshine, high temperatures and an inversion layer.
Nitrogen oxides are produced when fossil fuels are burned in motor vehicles, power plants, furnaces and turbines. Carbon monoxide is a by-product of combustion that comes almost entirely from motor vehicles. Fine particles, which are emitted directly as smoke and diesel soot and form in the air out of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, obscure visibility and can be inhaled deep into the lungs.

During the early years of World War II, Los Angeles residents began to realize the consequences of an increasingly industrialized area. Investigations began to determine the cause of resident’s eye irritation, crop damage, severe reductions in visibility and the rapid deterioration of rubber products. “Smog” became a familiar word and everyday presence and scientists and medical personnel began to look at its effects on public health. In the mid-1950s, the state of California’s Public Health division started to step up its efforts to define the problem of how and where smog forms, as well as address the health concerns associated with exposure to smog. Ozone levels were reaching peaks of .68 parts per million, more than six times the federal health standard. Early efforts to study the health effects of exposure to air pollution focused on acute exposure episodes. Only recently have the long-term exposure effects been addressed. In a 1956 survey sent out by the Los Angeles County Medical Association, physicians reported the following:
There have been several episodes in history which illustrate the harmful effects of acute short-term exposure to air pollution. Among those include:
During a five-day fog in December 1930, 63 people died, most of the deaths occurring on the fourth and fifth days. Older persons with previously known diseases of the heart or lungs accounted for the majority of fatalities. The signs and symptoms were primarily those caused by a respiratory irritant. They include chest pain, cough, shortness of breath and irritation of the eyes. Sulfur dioxide gas is suspected as the cause of the disaster.
Twenty people died and approximately 7,000 or 50% of the population, experienced acute illness during the week of Oct. 25, 1948, when temperature inversion and air stagnation occurred. Persons of all ages became ill, but those over 55 were more severely affected. Those with previous heart or respiratory disease, particularly bronchial asthma, suffered most. Symptoms were primarily respiratory and secondarily gastrointestinal, and included cough, sore throat, chest constriction, shortness of breath, eye irritation, nausea and vomiting. The onset of the illness for most persons occurred on the evening of the third day. Of the 20 who died, 14 had some known heart or lung disease.
Three episodes during which heavy fogs and air pollution were associated resulted in the death of nearly 5,000 people – in 1948, 1952 and 1956.
The episode in December of 1952 alone, resulted in at least 3,000 deaths more than expected for that time of year. Although the increase was present in every age group, the greatest increase was in the age group of 45 years and over. More than 80% of these deaths occurred among individuals with known heart and respiratory disease. During each of these incidents, comparable conditions were present: limited air supplies as a result of low-lying temperature inversions and faint winds, and a continuing heavy output of air pollution from multiple sources. Also, in none of the incidents was technology sophisticated enough to properly monitor the air and diagnosis of the specific causes of the illness and deaths were based on limited evidence gathered after the disasters.

Since the 1950s, medical evidence chronicling the effects of air pollution on the human body has continued to mountThe study found that 98% of the four-county basin’s population of 13 million is exposed to unhealthful air, with children especially vulnerable. In addition, 1,600 people die prematurely as a result of exposure to air pollution, according to the study. In 1991, as a follow up to the study, Hall looked at how air quality impacts minority communities. The study showed that minorities as a whole were shown to be exposed more often to poor air quality since they tend to live in more polluted air where housing is affordable. African-Americans and Hispanics generally breathe the worst air, partly because they tend to work in outdoor occupations. Children are the focus of a study funded by the California Air Resources Board that began in spring 1992 and will track 9,600 fourth, eighth and twelfth grade students for up to 10 years to assess the potential health damage from continued exposure to ozone, fine particulates and atmospheric acidity. The lead scientist on the project is Dr. John Peters of the University of Southern California. David Abbey, Ph.D., of Loma Linda University, studied a group of 6,340 Seventh Day Adventists living throughout California (62% lived in the Basin). Results of the study suggest a relationship between long term exposure to air pollution and the development of specific chronic diseases. Residents living in areas which exceeded state and federal standards for suspended particulates on 42 days or more per year had higher risks of respiratory diseases, including a 33% greater bronchitis risk and 74% greater asthma risk. In addition, women living in those high particulate areas had a 37% higher risk of developing some form of cancer. oIn 1987, Drs. Russell Sherwin and Valda Richters of USC examined the health of 152 young people, between the ages of 15 and 25, who died suddenly from accidents or homicide. In lung autopsies of over 100 of the subjects, slight lung airspace inflammation was found in 75% of the group, with severe damage in 27%. In addition, all of the youths examined had some degree of airway inflammation, while 39% had severe illness in the bronchial glands and 29% had severe illness in their bronchial linings. Combined, about 54% of the youths examined had at least one site of severe illness. While no evidence has been found to deter-ine the levels of smoking or other contributing factors that could have affected their health, these youths appear to have provided the first positive proof of health damage from long-term exposure to poor air quality. oA study conducted by Dr. Roger Detels of UCLA on chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD) looked at residents of three Southern California areas (Long Beach, Glendora and Lancaster) with different types and levels of air pollution.

Participants aged 7 to 59 were questioned about lifestyle habits and examined using lung function tests and histories to record exposures to pollutants from workplaces and personal habits, such as smoking.

Athletes may be relatively young, healthy, physically fit and nonsmokers, but they may be among the most vulnerable to the effects of inhaled ozone (and other environmental pollutants), according to Dr. Henry Gong of UCLA. Endurance studies suggest that athletic performance may begin to suffer at the .12 ppm level of ozone (the federal health standard), and is very likely at .20 ppm for most athletes exercising heavily for one or more hours. Fine particulate pollution — even at levels below the federal health standard — can shorten life spans by two years, according to a 16-year study by Harvard University researchers. In a study of 8,111 residents of six U.S. cities, particle pollution was strongly associated with excess deaths from lung cancer and heart disease — even when other lifestyle risks such as cigarette smoking were factored out.

There have been many Environmental Protection Agency studies looking at health effects. Some findings include: oA study of 10 adult men exposed to .12 ppm ozone for 6.6 hours (including five hours of moderate exercise), found that lung function decreased and respiratory symptoms (coughing and breathing discomfort) increased over the more than six hours of exposure. In a study done on rats, continuous low level exposure to ozone caused restrictive lung disease. Removal of the rats from the ozone environment to one of clean, filtered air appeared to reverse the disease state back to normal. However, the study indicated that since people do not breathe filtered air, ozone exceedances in numerous cities would appear to promote pulmonary fibrosis. In a field study of children during normal activities at summer camp, lung function measurements were taken before, during and after ozone levels reached above .12 ppm on four days and .18 ppm on one day. Lung function failed to return to its pre-episode level for many days after the ozone episode had passed. An acute exposure of humans to .40 ppm ozone initiates biochemical changes in the lung resulting in the production of components which contribute to inflammation and acute lung damage and which can lead to long term effects such as fibrosis. A study was initiated to determine if prolonged exposure to low levels of ozone would produce similar biochemical changes. Non-smoking males were randomly exposed to filtered air and either .10 ppm or .08 ppm of ozone for 6.6 hours with moderate exercise. The study concluded that exposure of humans to low levels of ozone is sufficient to cause an inflammatory reaction in the lungs.

The California Air Resources Board has concluded that “since the lungs of children are not fully developed, early damage to the respiratory tract could increase the risk of respiratory disease in adult life.”
Because of their physiology, children are much more likely than adults to develop smog-related lung damage. For their body size, children inhale several times more air than adults, and they breathe faster, particularly during strenuous physical activity. In addition, they spend more time outdoors than any other segment of the population according to the AQMD study. Dr. Robert F. Phalen, Ph.D., professor of community and environmental medicine and director of the Air Pollution Health Effects Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine, says that when children exercise, they tend to breathe through their mouths. According to Phalen, mouth-breathing bypasses the natural filtering of air pollutants by the nose and allows large volumes of polluted air to affect the more sensitive areas of children’s lungs which are still developing. Studies show that children exposed to summer ozone pollution year in, year out, have a greater susceptibility to respiratory infections because chronic exposure to smog impairs their immune system. Research findings also suggest that, even if children do not show symptoms while exercising in unhealthful air, they are likely to suffer a loss in lung function compared to youngsters who grow up where the air is less polluted.

State and federal governments have set health standards for pollutants, specifying levels beyond which the air is unhealthful. California’s state standards for air pollutants are more stringent than the federal government’s. It is up to each individual state to determine if they want to set tougher standards. Standards are set to provide an adequate margin of safety in the protection of public health. Under the federal Clean Air Act, EPA must base standards solely on health considerations and not economics or technology.
Various levels of smog episodes are reported for the pollutant ozone. The declaration of a first, second or third stage smog alert is based on the degree of health risk. The protective actions help to reduce exposure to unhealthful levels of ozone, but those who are especially sensitive should contact their physician for more specific advice. Generally, in the event of a smog alert, outdoor activities should be scheduled for morning or early evening hours to avoid the mid-day peak when ozone levels are at their highest.

My opinion on the problem is that it is a very serious problem and something should be done. The only thing is, nothing jurastic enough will be done. People can’t just all of the sudden stop using cars and humans can’t just all of the sudden change their way of living. So smog and ozone levels will get worse but life will go on.


Could U.S. policy have prevented the attack of Sep

t.11What would make a group people hate the U.S. so much that they would commit
the terrible acts of Sept. 11. Killing thousands of innocent people and taking away
the hopes and dreams of many.
Some of this Anti-American sentiment begins with our long alliance with Israel.

Israel and the Arab nations have been at war for many, many years. The war and
resentment between these two sides begins with a strip of land called the Gaza Strip.

This piece of land has been fought over for decades. So because of our alliance with
Israel most of the Middle East see it as siding with their most hated enemy!
I also believe that some of our have come back to haunt the U.S. One example of this
would be our support of the Shah of Iran from 1966-1979. The U.S. supported the
Shah even though, the people of Iran hated him and felt that he was corrupt. So that
led way to the overthrow of the Shah and his government and the rule of the Ayatollah
Khomeni. The new leader had a deep hatred of the U.S.and led a new anti-American
sentiment in Iran.
Our next ally would be Saddem Hueseein, who at the time was enemies with Iran.

So the U.S. made an ally of Saddem and supplied him with billions of dollars of
economic aid. Which he used to primarily build up his military forces and with that
military Saddem attacked a helpless Kuwait. Saddem destroyed much of Kuwait
and the ensuing war between Iraq and the Coalition forces was on.

When the U.S. allied themselves with the Mujahedin army during the Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan, who knew that Osama Bin Laden and others who fought
in that war would wind up becoming the evil Taliban.

It seems that U.S. policy is one of, if you are enemies of our enemies then you are our

I think that America should take a step back and take a long hard look at that region of
the world and say, “Does being allies with this country or this person make long-term
strategic sense and also will this country or person turn on us. If so will we as a country
able to pay that price.” I feel that U.S. presence is greatly needed in that region, but I
also think that the U.S. should take a better look how we choose our allies so that another
Sept.11 will not be lurking around the corner.

Jimmy Carter

The President of Peace
Jimmy Carter was born October 1, 1924, in the small farming town of Plains, Georgia, and grew up in the nearby community of Archery. His father, James Earl Carter, Sr., was a farmer and businessman; his mother, Lillian Gordy, a registered nurse. He was educated in the Plains public schools, attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, and received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946. On July 7, 1946, he married Rosalynn Smith. When his father died in 1953, he resigned a naval commission and returned to Plains. He became involved in the affairs of the community, serving as chairman of the county school board and the first president of the Georgia Planning Association. In 1962 he won election to the Georgia Senate. He lost his first gubernatorial campaign in 1966, but won the next election, becoming Georgias 76th governor on January 12, 1971. He was the Democratic National Committee campaign chairman for the 1974 congressional elections (Hochman html). After only serving one term as governor of Georgia he announced his candidacy for president of the United States on December 12, 1974. He won his partys nomination on the first ballot at the 1976 Democratic National Convention, and was elected the 39th president of the United States on November 2, 1976. During his presidency, Jimmy Carter made many important foreign policy accomplishments, including the Panama Canal treaties, the Diplomatic relations with China, and the Salt II treaty with the Soviet Union.
Jimmy Carters first foreign policy accomplishment, and by the United States citizens, the most popular, were the Panama Canal treaties. After more than eighty years after the first official ocean-to-ocean transit of the Panama Canal, the United States and Panama embarked on a partnership for the management, operation and defense of the Panama Canal. Under two treaties signed in a ceremony at the OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, the canal would be operated by the United States until the turn of the century under arrangements designed to strengthen the bonds of friendship and cooperation between the two countries. The treaties were approved by Panama in a plebiscite on October 23, 1977, and the United States Senate gave its advice and consent to their ratification in March and April 1978. The new treaties went into effect October 1, 1979 (Yahoo.com).

The new treaties, passed under the Carter administration and Panamas head of state Omar Torrijos would give Panama full control of the canal on December 31, 1999, at 12:00 midnight. All of the canals assets would also be turned over to Panama (Lycos.com).
The ratification of the Panama Canal treaties was an important step involving a decrease in Third World hostility toward the United States (Dumbrell 212). Carter and his advisors agreed even before the inauguration that the canal negotiations should be an immediate priority. If the United States did not successfully complete negotiations, which had been going on since the Johnson administration, the government of Panama might create conflict in the zone that would require drastic American action (Hargrove 123).

Another of President Jimmy Carters foreign policy accomplishments was his normalizing relations with the Peoples Republic of China. Over the winter of 1977-1978 Carter cultivated relations with Chinese officials in Washington, and solicited an official invitation to visit China himself. However the president pulled back after his advisor Mondale stated that it was too much to ask the senate to handle the Panama Canal treaties and any new agreements with China at the same time. President Carter was thus told not to be explicit about normalization, and that his visit to China was inconclusive. In the Spring of 1978 president Carter decided that the Secretary of State Vance would visit China. Vance would visit China but would not be authorized to negotiate about normalization because Carter was afraid it might hurt developing relations with Russia and Japan. The United States and the Soviet Union were beginning to negotiate a S.A.L.T. (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) treaty, and President Carter was determined not to delay any SALT negotiations. Vance was not authorized to negotiate in China, but did a good job of laying the groundwork for future agreements.

In the summer and Fall of 1978 president Carter negotiated the terms of normalization directly with the Chinese through the United States ambassador to China, Leonard Woodcock. Jimmy Carter believed that having better relations and stronger ties with China would help bring negotiations with the Soviet Union to a successful end. Directly after normalization terms concluded with China, president Carter pushed for a SALT treaty. By January 1979, Vance had met with Chinas Andrei Gromyko in Geneva to put the finishing touches to SALT (130, 131).

By the later part of Jimmy Carters presidency, relations with the Soviet Union began to arise. The United States and the Soviet Union were working together on general terms for a SALT II treaty. Ceilings were set on the number of total strategic nuclear launch vehicles along with a subceiling for vehicles with multiple warheads that each country could hold. The Soviets could keep their total number of missiles and continue to add multiple warheads to them. The United States could increase their number of missiles and warheads up to the ceilings. The two unresolved issues were whether a new Soviet plane, the Backfire, was an offensive bomber (if so it would be included in the agreement) and whether the American Cruise missile, which was not mentioned to the Soviets for some time, would be considered a missile in terms of the Vladivostok agreement.

Assuming the possibility of agreement on Backfire and the Cruise, a SALT II treaty based on the Vladivostok meeting would have stabilized the arms race but not reduced weapons arsenals. Limits were set on future development with the goal of parity. Soviet leader Brezhnev made it clear that the Soviets wanted a quick SALT agreement based on Vladivostok, with the Cruise missile included and the Backfire excluded. President Carter in turn suggested that the SALT II could be concluded without Cruise or Backfire but that it might be possible to move toward SALT III with deep reductions in existing forces. The Soviet leaders were uneasy about President Carters proposal to conclude SALT II, and were also concerned about sharp reductions in their existing weapons. The Soviet Union later accepted constraints on both Soviet Backfire and the American Cruise missile as part of the SALT II agreement. Basic agreement between the two nations on SALT II negotiations were achieved in April 1979, but an official SALT II treaty was never ratified. Final differences rounded out at the Carter-Brezhnev summit meeting in June of 1979 (134, 135).

The Panama Canal treaties, the normalizing relations with China, and the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union were among Jimmy Carters important foreign policy accomplishments during his presidency. The two broad foreign policy perspectives Jimmy Carter brought to his presidency was a determination to attack and resolve a number of difficult and outstanding problems. Ratification of the Panama Canal treaties was an important step in that direction. It signaled Jimmy Carters willingness to take on issues that Eisenhower, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford had considered too tricky (Dumbrell 212). Some saw losing the canal as a major loss to the United States because estimated construction costs were around $387 million and the United States had invested about $3 billion in the enterprise since 1903. The majority of the United States citizens had overlooked the money spent on the canal and saw it as a great opportunity to improve relations with Panama. The relations president Carter set with China was also an important step in resolving world peace matters. By giving China full diplomatic recognition, it gave the United States a more neutral stance throughout the world. President Jimmy Carters last great foreign policy achievement before his presidency was over, were the Strategic Arms Limitation negotiations with the Soviet Union. Despite failure of the SALT II treaty being ratified, it set an agreement for the heavy cut back of nuclear weapons for both the United States and the Soviet Union. This was a relief to the citizens of the United States in a sense that the nuclear arms race was coming to a halt. Jimmy Carter was a man who made the most of his opportunities and did what was best, in his mind, for the general public of all United States. The puzzle about the Carter presidency which may never be fully answered is why Jimmy Carter became so unpopular with the media, politicians and the general public, and stayed unpopular during the presidency of his successor. With more political skill, and a good bit more luck, Jimmy Carter might have been a second term president.
Works Cited
Dumbrell, John. The Carter Presidency: A Re-Evaluation. 2nd ed. Manchester UP, 1995.

Hargrove, Erwin C. Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1998.

Hochman, Steven H. Metacrawler.com: October 1, 1997. .

Lycos.com: September 21, 1997. http:/www.simulations.com/panamacanal/index.htm>.

Yahoo.com: March 1, 1998. http:/www.pancanal.com/ctransition/>.

rosa burges

Professor Samide
Final Paper III
William Shakespeare’s, Hamlet is a tragedy of failure, the failure of a man placed
in circumstances and faced to deal with them successfully. Shakespeare uses different
techniques to develop the characters in Hamlet. Throughout the play dramatic irony is
used by allowing the audience to view the true actions of the characters before the
characters disclose them. Shakespeare toys with the idea of appearances versus reality in
the play, among these are Claudius, the play within the play, and Rosencrantz and

Hamlet’s father, the king of Denmark, has suddenly died. Claudius, Hamlet’s
uncle, hastily marries Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother, and more importantly they become the
new king and queen. King Claudius is viewed as legitimately gaining control of the
throne by everyone except Hamlet. Hamlet knows that there is “something rotten in the
state of Denmark.” His belief is verified when the guards inform him of a ghostly figure
with close resemblance to the late king. The ghost reveals to Hamlet that while in the
garden, Claudius poured poison in his ear. Claudius prays to be forgiven but his prayers
are not sincere. Claudius, overcome with guilt, would prefer to keep his status then reveal
what he did to King Hamlet.

The play within the play is useful because it allows Hamlet to verify the
validity of the ghost. Usually plays are intended for entertainment purposes. The play is
not real and the actors are playing a role. In reality Hamlet makes it so that it is similar
to what really happened to his father. Hamlet even goes as far as to instruct the actors
appropriately. He will prove that the ghost is truthful by the reaction on Claudius’ face.

The play appears to be harmless but it has a close parallel to what really happened to the
late King Hamlet.

Rosencrantz and Guildernstern, who are the king’s spies, pretend to be friends to
Hamlet. The king has sent for them to investigate Hamlet’s madness and what he suspects
about his father’s death. This is a contradiction because later Claudius says that Hamlet’s
troubles are unknown. Hamlet not being the fool also pretends to be friends to
Rosencrantz and Guildernstern. He reveals to them that he is aware of their intentions
when he says “were you not sent for.” Claudius, fearing Hamlet knows too much sends
him with Rosencrantz and Guildernstern to England to be executed. Hamlet changes the
orders and has Rosencrantz and Guildernstern executed. Hamlet appears to be friends
with them but in reality he has them killed.

Shakespeare uses the appearances versus reality as a way to create irony in each
character. The audience knows what the characters are pretending to be. The audience
enjoys the different characters reactions when the truths are revealed. Claudius was not
the legitimate king, the play was supposed to resemble real life, and Rosencrantz and
Guildernstern were not true friends to Hamlet. Those are just a few of the many examples
of this technique in Hamlet.

Tsetse Fly

Tsetse Fly
African sleeping sickness is an infectious disease of tropical Africa. This infectious disease is caused by a protozoan organism that exists as a parasite in the blood of a number of vertebrate hosts. There are three variations of the disease that predominate in humans are transmitted by an insect vector: Two types of African sleeping sickness are caused by the following: Trypanosoma rhodesiense and T. gambiense, both transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly. Trypanosome, which early symptoms include fever, headache, and chills, followed by anaemia and joint pains. Later, the disease attacks the central nervous system, causing drowsiness, lethargy, and, if left untreated, death. The cycle of this deadly disease starts out with the tsetse fly and usually end in death if untreated.

Tsetse flies are classified in the phylum Arthropoda, class insecta, order Diptera, family Trypanosoma. Tsetse flies are unusual insects. The medium to large brown flies are between six to 14mm long, excluding its proboscis (which is the trunk-like process of the head). The wings are folded and scissor-like while at rest and extend a short distance beyond the end of the abdomen. Other flies have their wings projecting side-ways unlike the tsetse fly, which has overlapping wings. Tsetse flies are confined to Africa. There are 390 different species and four are found in Zambia. They are in the same family as the house and horse flies, they feed extensively on blood be it that of humans or animals. They are parasites that live in the blood or tissue of humans and other vertebrates. Egg and larval stages develop within the female. The female fly produces only one egg at a time. The larva hatches from the egg and is nourished during the growing period inside the body of the parent. When the larva is full-grown, it is deposited on the ground, and it becomes a pupa. She gives birth every 9 to 10 days. Tsetse flies mate only once, but that mating provides enough sperm to fertilize the female throughout her 90 to 100 day lifespan. Female tsetses produce at most nine larvae and therefore have one of the lowest reproduction rates in the insect world.
The single-celled trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness spend their time cycling between humans and tsetse flies. They linger in the gut of the fly, absorbing amino acids and other molecules that the fly gets by biting mammals. After about ten days the trypanosomes move into the fly’s salivary glands.The larva of the tsetse fly develops inside the body of the mother until it is ready to pupate in the soil. A number of the 21 species can transmit to humans the trypanosomes that cause the Gambian and Rhodesian forms of African sleeping sickness. The tsetse fly also carries the trypanosomes that cause nagana and other diseases of wild and domestic animals. Clearing the brush that the flies inhabit helps to get rid of them; DDT has also been used to exterminate them.
The vast majority of human infections result from inoculation with the trypanosome by tsetse flies as they suck human blood. The flies become infected while feeding on the blood of people or other mammals that are already infected with the parasite. The flies usually cannot infect people or animals until the germs have lived in their bodies several days and have passed through the stomach to their salivary glands. Then, for at least 96 days, the flies can transmit the parasites to anyone they bite. During this time the trypanosomes multiply by binary division in the midgut of the fly, then migrate to the salivary glands, and pass out of the fly’s proboscis in droplets of saliva during the fly’s bloodsucking. To prepare for their new home, the parasites cloak themselves in a coat made of millions of copies of a single sugary molecule. Our immune cells fashion antibodies that correspond to this molecule’s shape, and the antibodies enable the immune system to kill the parasite in huge numbers. But some individual trypanosomes take evasive action. They shut down the genes they use to build their coat and turn on a new set in their place. They can then build a new surface molecule, one similar enough to the old one to do the job but which no longer matches the antibodies. Now invisible, the parasite thrives while the immune system starts a new eradication campaign from scratch. But trypanosomes have hundreds of coat-coding genes that they hold in reserve, and they can easily continue to slip away from the body’ s attack.
After this saliva has been lying in the humans for about one to two weeks, the trypanosomes are then found in large numbers in the circulating blood of the victim. The disease starts to take on noticeable symptoms, the lymph nodes and spleen are invaded first, and they become swollen, soft, and tender. The lymph nodes at the back of the neck become enlarged (known as Winterbottom’s sign) this is a common sign of the disease. Irregular fever and delayed sensation to pain are also characteristic symptoms at this stage. After these symptoms appear the trypanosomes proceed to invade the brain and spinal cord. This results in neurological symptoms including severe headache, mental dullness and apathy, a weary shuffling gait, tremors, spastic or flaccid paralysis, chorea, and a profound sleepiness that develops during a meal or when the patient is standing or walking. These symptoms are followed by increasing emaciation, coma, and death.
The tsetse fly has a deadly bite that causes African sleeping sickness. The disease causes the body and mind to break down until if it is left untreated death is inevitable.
Word count 1085
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Kinley, David H., III, Aerial assault on the tsetse fly: researchers have found a way to eradicate thedisease-carrying tsetse fly from Zanzibar. Vol. 40, Environment, 09-01-1998, pp 14(7).
Sandra J. Glover, Tsetse fly. , World Book Encyclopedia, 01-01-2000
Zimmer, Carl, A sleeping storm. (Sleeping sickness in Africa). Vol. 19, Discover Magazine, 08-01-1998, pp 86(9).