?Beowulf begins with the story of the first king in the Danish dynasty, Scyld Sceafing. The king
was abandoned as a baby and later went on become a successful, powerful leader of the Danish
people. Following the death of Scyld Sceafing, his son Beowulf (not the Beowulf of this story)
becomes ruler of the Spear-Danes and much like his father, Beowulf is respected and beloved by
his subjects. After a reign of many years, Beowulf dies and his son Healfdene inherits the throne.

Healfdene fathers four children including Heorogar, Hrothgar, and Halfga. Hrothgar succeeds his
father and after achieving much glory and fame as ruler of the Danes, he decides to build a great
mead hall as a monument to his success and symbol of his greatness. He names it Heorot. After
the completion of Heorot, Hrothgar holds a banquet for his subjects where scops sing of the
creation of the Earth by God and the Danes celebrate the peaceful, festive times in which they

After the festivities continue for many years, the singing and music awakens an evil, part-human
monster named Grendel who is a descendant of the biblical Cain. Angered by the noise and
apparent happiness of the Danes, Grendel travels to Heorot at night when the soldiers within are
sound asleep after their day celebrations. Grendel kills thirty warriors and escapes into the night
satisfied with his evil deed. Hrothgar is deeply saddened by the deaths and fears the attack may
be the beginning of a long war with the monster. Grendel continues his murderous rampage the
following night and a war with Grendel ensues which lasts twelve years. Stories of the Danes’
suffering at the hands of Grendel spread to foreign lands. The Danes exhaust all means of
defense against Grendel and attempts to pay the monster to cease his harassment are useless. The
Danes’ desperation becomes so great, they abandon their Christian beliefs and begin worshipping
ancient deities from their pagan past.

When news of the Danes’ troubles reaches Geatland, Beowulf, thane of Hygelac, gathers
fourteen of his strongest, bravest men to voyage across the seas to help Hrothgar and his people.

Upon arriving, Beowulf and his men are greeted by a Danish coast guard sentinel. The sentinel is
alarmed to see armed men approaching the Danish coast and directly asks Beowulf to state his
business. The guard is clearly impressed by the Geat’s armor and weapons and conveys his
respect for the noble men.

Beowulf informs the soldier that he and his men are followers of Hygelac from the clan of the
Geats and explains that he is the son of Ecgtheow, a respected and renowned leader known
throughout the land. Beowulf explains that he has come to help Hrothgar and the Danes. After
learning that the Geat’s intentions are noble, the guard agrees to escort the men to Hrothgar.
Wulfgar, a Danish soldier and advisor to Hrothgar, interrupts the men’s journey to see Hrothgar
and interrogates them about their identity and intentions. Beowulf introduces himself and
explains his purpose. Wulfgar, impressed by Beowulf’s confidence and the appearance of his
men, welcomes the visitors and encourages Hrothgar to meet them.

While receiving Beowulf, Hrothgar explains that he remembers Beowulf as a boy and recounts
several experiences shared with Beowulfs father, Ecgtheow. Hrothgar views Beowulf’s
prescence as a blessing for the Danes because of his reputation as a great warrior and his noble
ancestry. He offers treasures to Beowulf and the Geats if they can end Grendel’s terror and return
Heorot to its previous glory. Beowulf expresses his desire to challenge Grendel to a battle to the
death and says he will trust in God and will thus refuse weapons or shields.

Reassured by Beowulf’s confidence, Hrothgar recalls further stories of Ecgtheow. He explains
how while new to his throne he helped Ecgtheow avoid a battle by sending treasures to his
enemies. Hrothgar then immediately begins discussing his troubles with Grendel and explains
his displeasure in seeing his mead hall abandoned by his warriors. The Danes and the Geat
warriors then go to Heorot where they are entertained by scops and drink mead.

8, 9
During the banquet, a courtier of Hrothgar named Unferth is overcome by jealousy of Beowulf’s
reputation and challenges the merit of his courageous feats. Unferth tells of a swimming
competition from Beowulfs past in which Beowulf was defeated by a warrior named Breca.

Beowulf explains that both warriors were armed only with swords to protect them from sea
monsters and that after match had lasted five nights, the two men became separated. Beowulf
was then attacked by a monster and was forced underwater where he slayed the monster with his
sword and later killed nine additional monsters before ending the competition. Beowulf asserts
that the hindrances with which he was forced to contend during the race justified his late finish
and that his acts of strength and courage validate his reputation. Beowulf also accuses Unferth of
murdering his brothers and explains that he will assuredly suffer the fires of Hell for his crimes.

After being offered mead by the Hrothgar’s wife, Beowulf once again affirms his desire to either
defeat Grendel or lose his life in the battle. Hrothgar is encouraged by Beowulf’s boastfullness
and confidence and proclaims his willingness to put the fate of Heorot in the hands of such a
worthy and noble warrior. He also offers treasures to Beowulf if he is victorious.
The Danes then leave Beowulf and his men alone in Heorot to face the monster. To prepare for
the confrontation, Beowulf expresses his confidence in God, removes his armor, and
relinquishes his weapons. Beowulf’s men, who do not share his confidence, join him in retiring
to bed to await the monster’s arrival.
After breaking down the door, Grendel enters the hall and immediately seizes one of the sleeping
Geat warriors and dismembers and consumes him. Beowulf rushes to attack. He firmly grasps
Grendel’s arm and the creature instantly realizes the strength of his attacker. As Grendel tries to
escape, his deafening shrieks frighten the Danes outside the hall.

The Geat warriors, now awakened by the battle, rush to Beowulf’s defense but find their
weapons useless due to a spell cast on their swords by Grendel. In the struggle to escape, the
monster loses his arm to Beowulf’s mighty grip. Aware that his wound is fatal, Grendel retreats
into the night to die. To commemorate his victory, Beowulf places the arm on the wall of the
mead hall and the triumphant Beowulf celebrates his victory.

13, 14
Upon learning of Beowulf’s victory, Danish warriors travel to the hall to view the monster’s
severed arm and follow the monster’s footprints from the hall to the boiling, steaming swamp
which has become his grave.

Hrothgar enters the hall to see the arm and is beside himself with gratitude. He exclaims that he
will henceforth consider Beowulf a son and will provide him with whatever earthly possessions
he should desire. Beowulf tells of his struggle with Grendel and asserts his belief that the
monster will suffer in Hell for his crimes against the Danes.

Damage to Heorot done during the struggle is repaired and the hall is prepared for a great
banquet to celebrate the death of Grendel and the end of his reign of terror. Hrothgar presents
Beowulf with various gifts including armor, weapons, horses and ornate saddles.

16, 17
Hrothgar also offers gifts to Beowulf’s men and offers compensation for the loss of the Geat
warrior to Grendel’s monster-sized appetite. A poet in the hall entertains the warriors with the
story of Finn, a Frisian king. The story begins with the death of many Danes including a man
named Hnaef by followers of Finn. Finn’s wife, the sister of Hnaef and mother of yet another
victim, is angered by the battle and pressures Finn to end the conflict . The poet vividly describes
the cremation of the men and the sadness of the grieving survivors. Hengest, a follower of
Hnaef, does not return home with the other Danish warriors after the battle. He stays and waits
all winter for reinforcements to return in the spring and avenges the killings by murdering Finn.

18, 19
Wealhtheow, Hrothgar’s wife presents Beowulf with a valuable necklace and praises Beowulf
and graciously asks Beowulf to mentor her two sons. After her oration about Beowulf’s courage
and honor, the Danish warriors retire to the mead hall as they had often done before Grendel’s

Grendel’s mother, enraged by the death of her son, enters the hall after the warriors are asleep,
steals her son’s arm from the hall’s rafters and kidnaps a Danish warrior who is a close
companion of Hrothgar. Beowulf, unaware of what has transpired, is called to Heorot and
politely and innocently asks the king if he has had a quiet night.

20, 21
Hrothgar is visibly overcome with emotion over the loss of his friend and relates to Beowulf that
the troubles of the Danes have begun again. Hrothgar tells Beowulf of the abduction of his friend
and of the bottomless pool where legends say the two monsters lived for many years. Hrothgar
again calls upon Beowulf to save the Danes and promises riches for avenging the attack.

The warriors travel to the pool and find the head of the kidnapped Dane and discover sea
serpents swimming in the pool. After killing one of the serpents, Unferth offers Beowulf his
sword called Hrunting and apologizes for questioning Beowulf’s courage
22, 23
After explaining to whom his treasure should be sent if he perishes in the pool, Beowulf
descends for several hours displaying no apparent ill effects from lack of oxygen and upon
reaching the bottom is confronted by the monster. She grasps him and forces him into her lair
where Beowulf learns his sword has no effect on his attacker.

Beowulf, near death, then miraculously discovers a giant sword and beheads the monster. He
finds Grendel’s body and also severs its head. The toxic blood of the dead monster dissolves the
giant sword. Beowulf chooses Grendel’s head from his new collection of severed heads and
returns to the surface with the head and the hilt of his dissolved sword. Beowulf discovers the
Danes had given up hope that he was still alive and had returned home. The hero then returns to
Heorot and presents his trophies to Hrothgar.

24, 25
Hrothgar examines the sword hilt and learns that it was created by a race of giants from before
the biblical flood. He delivers a long sermon to Beowulf in which he praises him and warns the
hero not to let his success inflate his ego beyond its already unfathomable proportions. He also
tells the story of the king Heremod and warns Beowulf not to end up like this evil king. The
grateful Hrothgar holds another banquet and Beowulf returns Hrunting to Unferth with his

26, 27
The following day Beowulf thanks the king for his generosity showing a new found modesty and
graciousness learned from Hrothgar’s sermon. He tells the king he will come to the king’s aide if
ever again his assistance is required. Hrothgar thanks the hero for saving the Danes from the two
monsters and expresses his profound sorrow about Beowulf’s imminent departure.
As the Geats travel to their ship with their treasures, they again meet the coast guard sentinel
who wishes the men well and assures them that their homecoming will be greatly anticipated by
their friends in Geatland. Beowulf rewards the kind words with the gift of a sword and the men
board their ship.

Upon returning home, Beowulf gives the treasure to Hygelac, Beowulf’s lord. We then learn of
Hygd, the queen of Hygelac, a benevolent queen who divides the treasure among her subjects.

Their daughter Offa, however, is sadistic and cruel until marrying Thryth of the house of
Hemming. The marriage ends her evil ways and makes her a fair and respected princess.

Hygelac and his queen welcome Beowulf home and express their elation in his safe return. The
king then asks Beowulf to describe his adventures with the Danes. Beowulf recounts his feats of
courage and describes several of gifts given to he and his warriors and begins to explain of
Hrothgar’s efforts to end a conflict with the Hathobards, a rival clan.

29, 30
Hrothgar continues telling of Hrothgar’s plan to make peace with the Hathobards. The King,
Beowulf explains, has offered his daughter’s hand in marriage to Ingeld of the Hathobard clan.

Beowulf fears, however, that the two people’s differences are too great and that Hrothgar’s
strategy with fail.

Beowulf then expresses his eternal loyalty to his Hygelac and explains that the king is one of his
few close companions. His fondness and respect for Hrothgar, he explains, is overshadowed by
his allegiance to Hygelac, his true king. The treasures obtained for the king in Denmark are then
brought before the king and formally and presented to him. Beowulf’s devotion is rewarded by
the gift of a sword, a mead hall of his own, and other lavish gifts.

After the death of the king and his son, Heardred, Beowulf inherits the throne of Geatland. After
a successful reign of fifty years, a dragon begins to terrorize the Geats much like Grendel’s
aggression against the Danes.

The Dragon’s hatred for the Geats begins when a thief, who is a transient serf, enters the dragon’s
cave and steals a jeweled cup from his hoard of treasures within. The theft awakens and angers
the dragon. The treasure, which had existed for hundreds of years, had previously belonged to a
noble race and had been discovered by the dragon. The beast spreads his fury over the Geatish
countryside and Beowulf is deeply disturbed by the suffering of his people inflicted by the evil

The dragon’s wrath soon reaches Beowulf’s home which is destroyed by its fiery breath. Beowulf
immediately vows vengeance and prepares for battle. We then learn of the circumstances by
which Beowulf became ruler of the Geats. During a war with the Frisians, Hygelac is killed and
his kingdom is offered to Beowulf. The hero graciously refuses the throne, believing the rightful
heir to be the king’s son, Heardred. In a war with the Swedish king Ongentheow, however, the
new king is killed and Beowulf agrees to take his place on the throne.

Ready for battle, Beowulf instructs the thief who had stolen the dragon’ s cup to lead he and
twelve warriors to the dragon’s lair. As the warriors reach the cave, Beowulf becomes fearful
that his strength may have deteriorated in his old age and begins to fear that the battle with the
dragon could bring about his death. His sorrow is compounded by his telling of the story of the
death of Herebald. He explains that Herebald, the eldest son of Beowulf’s adoptive father, was
accidentally killed by an arrow fired by one of Herebalds other sons. Beowulf regrets the
inability of his beloved father to ever avenge the death of his son.

As if sensing that his death is at hand, Beowulf continues to tell stories of his past and relives
battles with his companions in which he achieved glorious success. He then bids farewell to his
fellow warriors and enters the dragon’s cave to meet his fate. The dragon attacks and Beowulf
finds his specially made iron shield is little protection against the dragon’s breath of fire.

Beowulf strikes the dragon with his sword but finds the dragon’s scale armor too strong to fatally
wound the beast.

36, 37
Wiglaf, one of the warriors outside the cave, realizes the peril which faces Beowulf and berates
his fellow warriors for failing to assist their king. He prepares for battle and rushes to the hero’s
aid. The dragon responds with a burst of flames which destroys Wiglaf’s wooden shield. After
Beowulf’s sword breaks in the battle, the dragon advances upon the wounded hero and strikes
him in the neck with his poisonous fangs.
Wiglaf skillfully strikes the dragon below the head where the dragon is defenseless and pierces
the beast’s skin. Realizing the dragon has been injured, Beowulf quickly slices the belly of the
beast with his dagger, delivering a mortal wound to his mighty foe. Wiglaf treats the wounds of
the hero, but Beowulf knows he will soon die. He reflects on the worthiness of his
accomplishments and asks to see the treasure he has gained in his struggle with the dragon.

38, 39
Wiglaf brings the treasure to Beowulf and the hero admires the immense fortune he has gained
for his people. Beowulf orders the construction of a monument to honor his greatness and
achievements. He then praises Wiglaf for his courage, gives him the helmet necklace, and armor
he is wearing, and dies.

As the Geat warriors return from the woods where they had run in cowardice, Wiglaf scolds
them for abandoning their king who had armed them with superior weapons for the fight. He
exclaims that they will be forever known as traitors and cowards.
40, 41
Wiglaf sends word of the outcome of the battle to the Geat soldiers awaiting the news. As the
messenger informs the warriors of the death of Beowulf, he conveys his belief that their enemies
will assuredly take advantage of the news and attack. The messenger tells of the many conflicts
which have existed in the violent history of the Geats and predicts the conflict may begin again
with unfortunate death of their king. The warriors travel to the cave to see the corpses of
Beowulf and the dragon.

We learn that the nobles who had placed the treasure in the cave had placed a curse on it which
would last until the last day of the earth. Wiglaf orders the construction of a funeral pyre for
Beowulf and selects seven strong men to throw the dragon’s body off a cliff and load the treasure
onto a wagon.

After placing shields, helmets, and armor around Beowulf’s funeral pyre, the great king is
cremated to the crying of his mourning people. They place the ashes of Beowulf and all of the
dragon’s treasures inside a giant mound of sand where they would be safe from the enemies sure
to attack after hearing of the tragedy. The Danes are left feeling uncertain about the future of
their kingdom after the loss of their great king.
English Essays


The Catcher in the Rye
The book Catcher in the Rye is a story of Holden Caulfield’s thoughts about
life and the world around him. Holden tells many of his opinions about
people and takes the reader on a 5-day trip into his mind. Holden,
throughout the book, made other people feel inferior to his own. I can
relate to this because although I do not view people inferior to me, I
judge others unequally. Holden and I both have similar judgements of
people from the way they act and behave. We also share feelings about
motivation as well as lack of it. After reading this book, I came to the
conclusion that Holden and I are much more similar than I initially

Holden portrayed others to be inferior to his own kind all throughout
the book. He made several references as to how people aren’t as perfect as
he was. “The reason Stradlater fixed himself up to look good was
because he was madly in love with himself.” Holden had a
difficults with no being good. He was afraid of not having any special talents or
abilities and and did other thi8ngs to make himself look tough.

“Boy, I sat at that goddam bar till around one o’clock or so, getting drunk
as a bastard. I could hardly see straight.” Holden tried all he
could to try to be cool he was faking it just to fit in. He drank, cursed and criticized life l to make it
seem he was like he knew of his habits. I myself have found me doing this
at times, also. I, at times, feel the need to fit in to a group and do
things similar to what others do in order to be accepted by others, but I do have my limitations. I
smoked a cigarratte once by myself cause I saw everybody doing that so I was like let me see how it is, I tried it and
it didnt grow on me but that was only once. Holden and I both
put people on levels higher and lower other than our own for amount of knowledge and
and characteristic
Holden used the term ‘phonies’ to describe more than a few people in
this book. He used the term to be what a person is if they don’t act
themselfs and follow other people’s ways. Holden didn’t like
phonies, he thought of them as if they were trying to show off. He didn’t
like it when they showed off because it seemed fake and unnatural every
time they would act like it..

“At the end of the first act we went out with all
the other jerks for a cigarette. What a deal that
was. You never saw so many phonies in all your life,
everybody smoking their ears off and talking about
the play so that everybody could hear how sharp they
I know many people like this and I really dont pay them attention, I just let them make a
fool of themselves and I try to act like my self as much as possible. I
have many friends who talk using vocabulary that they wouldnt normally use just to try to impress
you, and others who make note of everything they see to show you how
observant they are. People do this when they have a fear of their own
individuality and feel that they need to acy different to get people to
like them. Me, personally I dont like seeing somebody acting differently from themselves,
cause I belive everyboddy is cool, you just have to find it in them.

Throughout the book Holden displays a lack of motivation for many
things in which he should do and like myself I acknowledge that, but Im tool lazy to take it in to consideration.
Holden couldn’t even call up an old
girlfriend whom he knew a long time ago.

“But when I got inside this phone booth, I
wasn’t much in the mood any more to give old
Jane a buzz.”
Holden also had a problem getting his motivation together in order to
finish schoolwork and succeed in his prep school. I have similar problems
with my motivation and find at times I must be in the mood to do something
in order for me to accomplish it. This stems from our experience in the
past being that we can get through life, or the part we’ve been through
already, with minimal effort. Holden has had this opportunity to notice
this as his parents have been shuffling him around to different schools
every time he flunks. He feels his parents will be there to move him
somewhere else and take care of him every time something goes wrong. I
. I find my forgetting
to do things and having my parents doing them for me spoiled me, so now I just do what I can and dont worry bout the rest which is bad. I find I am
basically did things I was suppose to take care off. This is a bad habit
though and I am trying to get out of this lifestyle because I know I
won’t always have someone to fall back on and sooner or later its gonna backfire.
Holden Caulfield and I are very similar in many ways. We tend to judge
different people similar ways. We both dislike people who act fake
because of their need to be cool. We also both lack motivation because of
childhood experiences which have made us who we are. In conclusion me Holden Caulfield
in many ways alike yet different.

None Provided7

The Day of the piercing finally came and I was ready. The whole day during school all I could think about was what it was gonna feel like and look like. I definately could not focus on my school work. 3:30 finally rolled around and it was time to meet my mom at Tribal Ways. My friend Shay asked if she could come with me and I said sure. It only took me like 5 minutes to get to Tribal Ways from school because my school is right around the corner so I was all set. I met my mom in front of Tribal Ways and then Shay, my mother and I all took the elevator to the second floor where Tribal Ways is located. I met Megan my piercer and she went over everything with me. She was really nice and made me feel comfortable. She said she would be using a 14 gauge 7/8″ barbell on my tongue. She was using a longer barbell because when it swells you don’t want the balls to be “sucked” into your tongue. She then gave me a cup of listerene and told me to go to the bathroom and swish for two minutes. When I came back she took me into the piercing room. It was VERY clean. She then had me sit in a hot pink hair dressing type chair and then marked my tongue with an all natural purple ink and a tooth pick. Then I checked it out in the mirror and I told her it was fine. I then sat back in the chair and she put the clamps on. Personally I don’t think the clamps hurt like most people say they do. Then I closed my eyes and she put the needle through. I made a quick wince but it actually didn’t hurt. It was just a quick sharp pain and that was it. Then she put the barbell in. I was pierced! I couldn’t believe it. Then she had me go back to the bathroom and rinse with listerene and water. My mom paid her and



From 1882 through 1951 there were 4,730 recorded lynchings by vigilantes in the U.S, with many of them being highly public affairs. Even when miscreants were afforded a trial and executed in accordance with law, such events were often local in nature. For example, while states such as New York electrocuted condemned prisoners at Sing Sings electric chair as early as the late 19th century, in states such as Missouri hangings were conducted at local county jails as late as 1937.

The race and the crime seem to play a huge role in the determination of the sentencing. For example if a black male had stolen like a candy bar out of a store, and got 10 years, that proves its more than likely an issue of race than the crime. But also if a black man murders someone, the death penalty is probably going to be a sentence, and a sentence of justice in my opinion. In a lot of state death penalty cases, the race of the victim is much more important than the prior criminal record of the defendant, or the actual circumstances of the crime. A study by the Bureau of Justice stated that more than one-half of people the people on death row are of color. Race and the crime are a very important factor in determining who is going to be sentenced to die. Several studies have been shown that the role of race in the death penalty, they include a study in 1990, a report from the General Accounting Office that stated that in 82 of the cases reviewed the race of the victim was found to influence the punishment for the crime. A black man who
kills a white person is 11 times more likely to receive a death sentence than if a white person kills a black stated John Monty of the Bureau of Justice. And of blacks, which kill blacks, they even have less to worry about; it’s almost like saying, oh, well, he needed killing anyhow! In 1991, in Texas, blacks made up 12% of the population, but 48% of the prison population and 55.5% of those on death row are black says the death penalty information center. Since 1988, the federal government has reviewed 92 death penalty cases. Of these cases; 56 defendants were black, 11 were Hispanic, 5 were Asian, and 20 were Caucasian. From 1930 through 1989, 3,939 people were executed in the United States, and 54% of them were black.

In my opinion, the death penalty is a must. Baring in mind that the idea of putting another human to death is hard to completely fathom. The physical mechanics involved in the act of execution are easy to grasp, but the emotions involved in carrying out a death sentence on another person, regardless of how much they deserve it, is beyond my own understanding. I know it must be painful, dehumanizing, and sickening. However, this act is sometimes necessary and it is our responsibility

Should Immigration Be Limited?

Immigration: limited or unlimited?
On the subject of immigration, one student at J.E.B. Stuart High School in Falls Church, Virginia commented, we make America more interesting (Swerdlow 61). As true as these words are, the question of how much more interest should be allowed to cross our borders each year, and what exactly defines an American these days puzzle the already 281 million residents who find comfort in the freedoms of America. America is a land of immigrants, also referred to as the melting pot of the world. However, the possibility that Americas kettle is over-flowing concerns its citizens and some politicians.
Ideas for capping immigration have been voiced in the past, but have not been heard. While some will argue legal immigration should have no restrictions, most Americans will agree illegal immigration is indeed a problem. With some 6 million people living in America illegally, and only 46, 750 deportations last year, a solution must take hold soon (Zarembo 26). President George W. Bush has been working on a plan to reform immigration that could make millions of undocumented workers legal. Bush may only open the application for legal residency to Mexicans, but nothing will be final for at least another year. As a result of negotiations, mayhem has broken out on Capitol Hill, with politicians pulling fiercely on both sides. Some believe this will trigger more illegal immigrants to migrate to America, and in turn cost the already tax-paying citizens more money. On the other side, politicians believe it is about principle; accepting all people who are here, legal or illegal (Zarembo 25). The fact still remains— Americas population is growing rapidly each day, whether or not there is room, schools, or work for more immigrants.
Immigrants who have lived in America, legally, for years have views separate from politicians whom many have lived here all their lives. The incentive for many immigrants to flock to America is for the opportunities it will offer their children. They come looking for their own piece of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, freedom, and to escape from lives of poverty and war. In the 2000 census, ten percent of Americans were born in other countries and in 1990, 32 million US residents spoke a language other than English at home, a number that has undoubtedly risen in the past 11 years (Swerdlow 46-47).
Although America has become the land of immigrants, tolerance is not always upheld in the school scene, where teenage students are more concerned about gossip and the latest styles of hair and clothes to recognize the greater need for an open-minded society. Many immigrant students come to America and assimilate very nicely to the ways of life, mainly because they have learned to speak English. About one fifth of high school immigrant students are not even literate in their native language, making the task of learning English much harder (Swerdlow 50). Immigrant students who struggle with English often drop out because they have become discouraged or need to work in order to help support their families (Swerdlow 51). They work for eight dollars and hour or less, taking the jobs that no one actually wants; restaurant work and house keeping for example (Swerdlow 60).
A possible solution in terms of immigration is not to open our arms to illegal immigrants, but to embrace those looking for a happy future. If America cracks down on the number of illegal immigrants, there will be more space for those who come with the purpose of making America a better mixture of cultures. The incentive for immigrants to come here illegally is the possibility they can work in America without paying taxes. There is no way around paying taxes as a legal resident of the United States, however a one year tax break could be offered to those coming here from poverty in order to get their bearings. With a tax break like that, more people who are tempted to come to America illegally might just change their mind. However, the borders to Mexico need to be tightened in order to keep illegal immigrants out, whether or not a tax break is given to immigrants. The problem of who should get this tax break might cause a stir in communities all across America. Legal citizens will claim they did not get a tax break when coming to the land of freedom, and still made it on their own. As for American citizens, the complaint of paying for the immigrants children to attend public schools, may cause even more of a controversy. Nonetheless, to open our already weighted arms to illegal immigrants is an idea the tax-paying citizens can do without. Allowing them to come to America without paying any taxes yet reaping the benefits is costing Americans more money than they bargained for. Accepting people from all walks of life is Americas job, but paying for other peoples mistakes is not.

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You think you know a person. You think you know them, right up until the day
they come out and tell you about all their deep, dark secrets and this whole other life
they’ve been leading that you never even knew about. At least, that was the case with my
good friend, Lyle Lawrence Kingly.

My name, for the information of the curious, is Niles Jameson. I knew Lyle Kingly
for a good many years and was actually an associate of his for a short time. We eventually
went our separate ways, I pursuing my career of choice, he pursuing his. I still think he
was just a little too young to go into the private investigation business, but we called it
‘creative differences’ and left it at that. We stayed friends, however, and tried to remain in
touch. So I was surprised, rather pleasantly, the day I received an overseas long-distance
call from Africa.

It was Lyle, calling to see how I’d been, what I was doing, that sort of thing. Then
suddenly his voice took on a more serious tone.

“Niles, you have to come here. I may need your help.”
“What is it, Lyle? What’s wrong?”
“I can’t tell you over the phone.” He whispered. “It’s too important. You have to
be here.”
“In Africa?” I said in disbelief.

“Yes, here. It’s that important.”
“But Lyle–“
“I’m an animal over here!” He hissed into the phone. “I can’t tell you any more. I
don’t dare. Please, Niles, don’t tell anyone what happens when you get here, or anything
about this phone call. It means my life, Niles, and it could mean my death.”
I caught the nearest plane out to Africa. I was worried about my friend. If I had to
go to Africa to hear it, I knew it had to be important. I stopped at his unreasonably small
office in the city, but he wasn’t there. This meant, unfortunately, that I had to drive fifty
miles out of the city to his house. I was relieved when I saw his face answer the door. We
sat down and talked for a while, he fixed me a light snack, let me rest off some of the
effects of jetlag. We talked for a good long time before I finally asked him.

“Lyle, why did you make me come all the way out here?”
“You have family secrets, don’t you, Niles?” I did.

“Secrets that you wouldn’t tell anyone but those you trusted?” Yes.

“Well, I’ve got one of those secrets, a dangerous one.”
“What is it?” I said to him quietly. And then he told me.

“Niles, you’ve heard the stories, the ones they always tell at Halloween — about
people who change into animals?”
“Yes, but I don’t see what that has to do with you, Lyle.”
“Niles, I– I find that the direct approach works best.”
“WHAT! Lyle, what are you talking about?”
“I — I’m a lycanthrope.”
“You’re a what?”
“A lycanthrope.”
“A — A–“
“A lycanthrope.”
I was beginning to fear for not only my friend’s life, but for his sanity.

“A– A lycanthrope. You’re a lycanthrope.”
“Like a werewolf.”
“No — not a werewolf. But a shape-shifter nonetheless.”
I decided to play along, whatever his game was.

“OK then. Well, what are you?”
“You know, I could tell you, but then you probably wouldn’t believe me. I’m sure
you already think something about me, that I’m crazy or something, right? Am I right,
I shifted uncomfortably. “Look, Lyle, the last I knew, people do not change into
“Niles, please don’t make me do this the hard way.”
“Uh — What’s the hard way?”
“The hard way is that I prove it to you.”
I usually try to be as open-minded as possible to all things, so I said to him, “All
right, then.”
“You want me to prove it to you?” As he made this daring challenge, his eyes
started to take on a wild look in them.

“Prove it to me.” He sighed, with an exasperated expression on his face. “I hate it
when people won’t take me seriously.”
And he did prove it to me. He changed into a beast, right in front of my eyes.

I stood there, in shock, and before I could do anything else, I heard it… A low
growl. The animal crouched into a springing position and, with a snarl, leapt upon me.

I was on the floor, paralyzed with shock and fright, as he stood over me. I could
feel the beast’s weight pressing on me as two huge forepaws stood on my shoulders, paws
which had the dexterity of human hands. He brought his face right down to mine, and as I
stared up into round, animal eyes, he spoke. He said to me, in a ragged, snarling voice,
“Now do you believe me?”
I could not answer him. I quivered on the floor, and said; “W– What are you?”
“The same thing I always was.” He responded in that ragged voice. “Your friend.”
He got up off of me and, just as suddenly as he had transformed, changed back into a
human form. It was Lyle, standing there as though nothing had happened.

I slowly got up and faced him. “How did this happen?”
“It didn’t just happen, Niles.” He responded sarcastically. “I’ve always been this
way. All my life. The only person it’s new to is you.” He sat back down at the table
where we had been talking just a short while ago. Nervously, I joined him.

“What kind of creature are you, Lyle?” He smiled ruefully.

“I was wondering when you’d ask.” He said. “I’m not even a typical lycanthrope.
I’m a crossbreed, between two species. For years, I didn’t even know what to call myself.”
“Call yourself what?” I asked in slight astonishment.

“Oh, that’s simple, Niles. I’m a Caline.”
“A Caline.” I said, and I paused. “Um, Lyle… What’s a Caline?”
“It’s the name I finally came up with, to call myself.” He said. “It stands for half-
canine, half-feline. You put them both together, you wind up with ‘caline’. Which,
unfortunately, I am.”
“A Caline,” I said. “Half-dog, half-cat — Lyle, what are you talking about? That’s
He shot me a look. “Well, you’re talking to the world’s only one, as far as I know
of, Niles.”
“Well, what– When did all this happen?”
“Like I said, I’ve been this way all my life. It has to do with my — well,
questionable parentage.”
“Your parents? What does this have to do with your parents?”
“Everything. My father was a werewolf from the States, and my mother was a
were-lion from over here.”
“A were-li–“
“Yes, Niles, a were-lion. It would take a while to explain. Just accept what I’m
telling you for the moment. Anyway, dad came over here on a vacation some years ago. I
don’t know all the specifics, but sometime during then he met my mother, and somehow
they fell in love with each other. Dad eventually moved to Africa so they could be
together. They married on human terms, and after several months together, Mom finally
told him they needed to have ‘a little talk’. To this day, neither one of them knows who
was more surprised.”
I just sat quietly, trying to absorb it all. He continued.

“I grew up knowing about my parents, expecting the change… But I never knew
how I would turn out, what I would be. Not even Mom or Dad knew what to expect, since
no one knew what would happen if such two different species bred before. But when I
finally did start to change, I was still loved and understood. I also grew up listening to a lot
of arguments. Not real fights, you know, but one constant argument: Mom wanted to stay
at home, but Dad couldn’t stand the hot climate. A few times he did actually move back,
but they just couldn’t stand to stay apart. The last I knew, Dad was still living here together
with Mom, but I can’t be sure. I haven’t called in a while.”
“Is there anything else?” I asked, astonished.

“Oh, yes. I’m not a werewolf, not a were-lion, but a werebeast nonetheless. I’m a
Caline. So my worst troubles occurred when I tried to find the two species I was a hybrid
from. You have no idea how hard it was for a crossbreed like me. The first group of
werewolves I came across wanted nothing to do with me. That particular pack wasn’t a
perfect example of the whole species, though, and I do have a couple of friends on that
side. Were-lions, however, are a much rarer breed, and I had to ask my mother how I
could find a pride. The were-lions were much more accepting of me, I suppose because I
take more after my mother. But anyone I met from that side always seemed unnerved by
me. I suppose they just couldn’t get around those inherent canine characteristics.”
“Anywhere I went, whatever species I tried to associate with, I was rejected,” Lyle
continued. “I was tolerated, refused, harassed, and ignored, but never accepted. One time
I almost lost an ear in a fight with a were-tiger who said he ‘didn’t like my attitude’. I just
suppose no one could accept the idea of me being a Caline.”
“What happened?” I asked, too absorbed in the discussion.

“With you — and the were-tiger?”
“Oh, I got away without incident.”
“Oh,” I said. “I suppose the idea of such two different species being successfully
bred together didn’t come off too well.”
“Exactly.” Lyle added. “You’re not going to believe this, Niles, but the most
accepting group of my situation has been you humans.”
“Really?” I was astounded. Then I thought of something. “Um, Lyle, how many
people have you told all this to?”
“Only my closest friends, Niles, the people I know I can trust.”
“Ah.” Well, I was glad to know I was in that circle of people.

“My looks are no help, either.”
“Your looks–“
“You saw me.”
“Well, I didn’t see very much of you while you were in my face.”
“Oh.” And he changed again, so I could get a better look at him.

He was basically lionlike in appearance, but with a distinctly canine accent to his
features. His fur was a strange, off-white shade, a color that gave way to a stark white
underbelly. His sable-black, glossy mane framed his face and flowed down his neck,
hiding all but the tips of his two pointed ears. His hands and feet were now four huge,
padded paws. He turned and looked at me with round eyes that were neither canine nor
feline, but beyond description. They were almost aglow, with a look of wildness in them
that was as frightening as it was fascinating. But I could see what would have astounded a
human and caused a werebeast to judge him, what was probably the greatest problem with
his appearance; The same sable shag that comprised his mane also covered his tail.

But I didn’t really concentrate on his features as much as I did on him.For right
then, I just stood there with my mouth open, staring at him in awe.

He shot me a glance out of his round, animal eyes.

“Lyle, you’re beautiful.”
He spoke.

“You just tell that to all the other species.”
I could understand the words, but his voice sounded like paper that had gone
through a shredder. And I couldn’t help noticing the four, deadly-sharp fangs that flashed
in his mouth as he talked.

“What’s it like… Being a Caline, I mean?”
He answered again, in that ragged voice. “Believe it or not, Niles, it’s actually got a
few good points. I couldn’t list too many of them offhand, though. Um… Ah, yes!” His
eyes lit up. “Well, for example, I seem to have a greater sensory acuity than most other
werebeasts. I tend to notice things that either of my parent species would ordinarily miss.”
“It’s the strangest thing, being able both to howl and to roar.”
He sighed, glanced at me, and continued talking.

“However, I do have trouble unsheathing and retracting my claws.”
From each forepaw came five razorlike claws that could rip a man to shreds in
seconds. Was Lyle trying to make me nervous?
“Every time I get them into one position, I have such difficulty getting them into the
other,” he said, withdrawing the deathly blades. I had been looking at the structure of his
paws for quite some time, and soon I noticed something. “What about your thumb —
dewclaw — whatever?”
“I was just getting to that,” Lyle said, delighted that I had asked. “It’s just another
one of nature’s ways of dealing with the human-animal connection.” Lyle held out a paw
for me to see.One of the joints in his hand — paw — moved, and a fifth digit equivalent to
a thumb seemed to me to appear out of nowhere. It was furry, and padded, and equipped
at the end with a retractable talon, just as all the others, but now it was in a roughly human

Lyle, standing on three legs, reached up and, seizing one of the thin-stemmed
glasses from the dinner table, held it with his five clawed appendages as accurately as if his
padded paw had been a human hand. He then began to twirl it around more deftly than
most humans could have. Needless to say, I was very impressed.

He set the delicate glass back on the table and turned the paw toward me again.
The dewclaw moved back into place, conveniently out of the way. I then realized that it
had not just appeared, but had been there all along. This joint, I realized, made it very
convenient for werebeasts to get around.

Just then, Lyle let out a chuckle that sounded more like a snarl. “I just can’t believe
what you said, Niles. Me– beautiful.” I looked at his smile, and I saw the huge ivory
daggers in his mouth again. And I remembered the reputation werebeasts have involving
humans. “Lyle?”
“Have you ever… Killed anyone?”
He looked me dead straight in the eyes.

I stood there, shocked, horrified. Lyle should have been the one surprised by the
question, astounded that I could even ask such a thing. I had expected him to say
something like, ‘Niles, of course not!’, or ‘What are you talking about?’, or ‘You know I
would never do such a thing’. I expected him to say anything, anything but what he had

He’s killed someone before, I thought. He could kill me… With white and shaking
hand I reached out to steady myself on the back of a chair. Lyle pulled the chair out, and
helped me sit down. I looked up at him and said,
“Lyle — how could you? Of all the people, you’re not the type…” Of course, by
then I realized I was talking to someone who had just been telling me about a whole other
side to his life that I knew nothing about. I had no idea what type he really was. Lyle put
his hand on my shoulder.

“Niles, I’m sorry. I forgot you’d have taken it this hard. I should have explained to
you first.

You see, in my profession, I have a tendency to accumulate quite a few enemies.
The very nature of the business — sticking your nose where it doesn’t belong, as it were —
can get some people really mad at you really quick. Private investigation has painted a
bull’s eye on me, Niles, and there are plenty of people who want to take shots.

This one man, the man I killed, had plenty of reason to hate me. I was directly
responsible for getting about 20 of his friends sent to prison for illegal-arms trading. I
nearly got him, too, and if it weren’t for a legal technicality, a well-placed loophole, he’d
still be alive today — and rotting in prison where he belonged.

He took out a hit on me; he put a $20,000 price tag on my head. That didn’t work
out too well. After all, how would you know that this strange-looking animal is the same
person you’re getting paid a sweet amount of money to put a bullet through? I just had to
stay a beast until they gave up looking for me. When that happened, the guy took his $20
grand back and went out looking for me himself.

He found me passing through an old abandoned warehouse in the city. He had me
cornered in there, I couldn’t get out. He was holding a gun on me, Niles, and he was about
to shoot. I didn’t have any other choice. He didn’t even know what got him. One quick
bite to the jugular and it was all over. He didn’t suffer. I’m not that kind of person.”
Suddenly, I was beginning to see Lyle in a whole new light. He had killed in self-
defense; he was no murderer.

“Nobody ever found his body either. I was too upset at the time to notice, but
actually, he tasted pretty good.”
“WHAT! You ate the guy? You ate the guy?”
“Well, Niles, I don’t often follow the family history, but eating your enemies is a
time-honored werebeast tradition.”
Lyle spoke.

“Really, Niles, I’m not all that sure you understand.”
“I understand what you told me. But I still can’t believe you actually ate that guy.”
I shuddered at the thought.

“Believe whatever you want, it’s still the truth.” He responded. “At least I’m not
like some other werebeasts which I could all too easily name. Besides, you act as if you
still don’t understand me. You’re sitting there, fidgeting, looking at me like any second I’m
about to jump up and eat you. You’re treating me like I’m some kind of wild animal.”
“Aren’t you?”
“Oh. Well — yes.” Without knowing it, I had caught Lyle off-guard and thrown
him and emotional curve. But I continued nevertheless.

“You’re making it very hard for me not to act that way. After all, you have the
qualities of some of the world’s most vicious — and successful — predators, you have better
senses than I could even hope to imagine, you killed a man–“
“Would you kill, to save your own life?”
“Well, I–“
“The question is no different when applied to a human. It’s just because I’m a
werebeast that it has a little different twist.”
“You do have a point, but Lyle–“
“I’m one of the good guys, Niles. Think about it. ‘Private Investigator’. Why
would I devote myself so much to helping humans?”
“Because humans were the only ones who accepted you?”
Lyle beamed. “Now you’re catching on!” He said. “You were right. Humans
were the only ones who accepted me for what I was, as you are learning to do, Niles. The
human world was the only one where I was treated without bias or disdain.

But still, let me tell you about one of my cases, just to make sure you understand.”
“One of your cases…”
“Yes! You wouldn’t believe how much help it is to be what I am, particularly when
it comes to my cases. I get some pretty weird ones. In fact, some I wouldn’t even be able
to solve if I were just a human. I could tell you…”
“Well then, by all means, go ahead.”
“Really? Well, okay, let me think of one…

One morning, I was at my desk when this woman walks into my office. She was
dressed all in red, just like she had come straight out of some old detective movie from the
40s. Really weird, really spooky stuff, to say the least.

She said she had come to me because she was worried about her husband. He
worked for an oil company, and she thought that might have something to do with what
was going on with him. Her husband had been doing strange things, working with
suspicious people she didn’t know, barely even coming back home. Nobody else could
find him. So she turned to me.

There must be good money in oil. She looked rich. I remember she was wearing a
white fox on her shoulders. She must have forgotten it, because she left it there and didn’t
come back for it.

If there’s one thing I share with other werebeasts, it’s an absolute hatred for cruelty
to and mistreatment of animals. So, after I’d torn the awful thing to shreds and disposed of
it, I started working on her case.”
So saying, he began his story.

Category: English

Human nature

Man is viewed as an animal in scientist’s eyes. There are many psychological implications of innate drives and instincts. Almost all innate drives and instincts are present unconsciously present in every human as in that of animals.

Mans innate drives are similar to that of animals. Animals instantly begin to walk and search for food, humans instantly do the same. These instincts are not consciously recognized. Sigmund Freud said “innovations were humans’ recognition of unconscious psychiatric process that follow laws different from those that govern conscious experience” (Davis, Palladino 2000. pg. 31).Freud was saying that the human mind unconsciously tells the body to do what is needed to survive. Human Nature is the product of innate drives conflicting with the requirements of social living (Davis, Palladino, 2000. pg. 32).
According to the humanist, people have choices in their lives, and we cannot understand their choices by studying animals in lab oratories or people experiencing adjusting problems (Davis, Palladino, 2000. pg.32). Humans may not do the politically correct thing when it comes to surviving by what innate drives tell humans what to do. Scientist learned their information from observing animals. Innate drives cannot be fully explained, but they do exist (Gerow 1997 pg. 128)
Instincts are found in every creature. Instincts are unlearned behaviors that are more complex than a simple reflex (Davis, Palladino 2000. pg. 796). Realizing stimuli are specific environmental events that trigger or release the instinctive behaviors (Gerow, 1999. pg. 103). Instincts are evident early in life.

Innate drives and instincts are very complex human behaviors. Every one has them, as do every animal. Scientists try to learn more about them every day. Studying animals may not be the best way to learn about them.

Davis, S., ; Palladino, J. (2000). Psychology: Media and Research Update. New Jersy:Prentice Hall.

Gerow, J. (1997). Psychology, an Introduction. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational.