try. It sets itself apart from the rest by having a protagonist becoming evil. What makes Macbeth such a complicated character is the way his outlook keeps on changing throughout the play. This essay will prove that Macbeth is an evil man and was not overpowered by ambition to get what he wanted. This essay will also determine that certain characters like the witches did not force him to do evil; they simply triggered it. In the beginning of the play, Macbeth is shown as a hero in the Scottish army, that is ironic because Macbeth has defeated a traitor and he will become one. We feel that a person of his loyalty could never commit evil unless he had a good reason or if he would be provoked. After Macbeths first meeting with the witches, we learn from his aside that he has thought about killing Duncan ” My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical” 1(Macbeth 1.3.152). Macbeth also says ” If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me Without my stir.” 2(Macbeth 1.4.157-159) which means that maybe he does not have to murder the king to gain that title. Luck has been very generous to him and might continue and make him king.
Macbeths true evil thoughts about being king are first shown when he finds out that king Duncan has named his son Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland. He now shows his evil and his true feelings.
” Stars, hide your fires; Let not night see my black and deep desires. The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be Which the eye fears,when it is done, to see.” 3(Macbeth 1.4.57-60)
Macbeth is actually seeking help from the dark and supernatural. Macbeth is saying that he does not want to see the evil that he will commit until it is done. It is now known that Macbeth is capable of evil and would commit it.
Upon meeting Lady Macbeth, we can assume that any evil done by Macbeth would be contributed by her influence. Lady Macbeth is a very powerful women and she has a-lot of power over Macbeths decisions. After Lady Macbeth reads the letter from Macbeth, she says that he is in fact too noble to kill Duncan in cold blood but he would like to.
” It is too full othmilk of human kindness To catch
the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great, Art not
without ambition, but without The illness should
attend it. What thou wouldst highly, That wouldst
thou holily; wouldst not play false And yet wouldst
wrongly win.” 4(Macbeth 1.5.17-23)
Lady Macbeth also talks about Macbeths ambition and how he is not the kind of person to let anything stand in his way if he wants it enough. Knowing there is evil in him, once he starts with the murder he will not let anything else stand in his way.
Macbeths guilt is recognized after the killing of the king; in fact he is filled with so much of it that he is unable to pronounce the word AMEN. Macbeth shows once again his guilt when he says “Will all great Neptunes ocean wash this blood Clean from my hands?” 5(Macbeth 2.2.78-79). At this point, we can assume that Macbeth is in fact not an evil man instead one who was overcome with the idea of great achievement (his becoming king of Scotland). His attitude is shown to have been changed as he tries to put the blame of the murder on Duncans children. “We hear our bloody cousins are bestowed In England and in Ireland.” 6(Macbeth 3.1.33-34) This shows the reader that Macbeth is trying to cover up his cruel actions by laying the blame on someone else. Macbeth is trying to hide the evil that he has committed.
Macbeths evil is now progressing. The assumption that Macbeths wife was the reason for the evil deed that was committed can now be no longer since he is now planning things without her knowledge. Leary put it best when he said “Macbeth makes the desicions to murder of his own free will, sins and falls from grace” 7(Leary,200). He doesnt want anyone to take his hard earned title away from him and is willing to kill everyone who he considers a threat. Evil is overpowering him as he decides to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. The witches predicted Banquos children to be kings but not him. Clearly Banquo was no threat to the title of Macbeth yet Macbeth had him killed anyway. Macbeth no longer thought of the loyalty he owed Banquo as he had done in Duncans case.
The banquet scene is very important and symbolic. Shakespeare shows that Macbeth is so evil that he is in some way not human anymore. “The tables full.” 8(Macbeth 3.4. 54) said Macbeth. The place where he was suppose to sit was taken by the ghost of the now dead Banquo. Macbeth now doesnt have a place among the others. He became enraged as he knew that that was true but later accepted it by going to meet with his own evil kind, the witches.
The witches do play an important part in Macbeths evil actions and his downfall but cant be held responsible for it. The witches told him more or less exactly who were a threat to him. If it were not for them Macbeth would have had to continue on guessing and might have killed many people who pose no threat to him.
Until now, everybody that died was a threat to Macbeth in some way or another. To a certain degree, Macbeth is considered only an evil man to who he thinks stand in his way of greatness and happiness. All that changes when he has Macduffs castle attacked by a band of murderers. The murderers killed many people who have nothing to do with Macbeths continuing reign over Scotland. Macbeths evil is now at its peak. Nobody can blame Lady Macbeth for his actions now. She doesnt even know what he is doing at this point. The witches prophecies told him that Macduff poses a challenge for him. Still they never mentioned his family or even anybody else. That didnt stop Macbeth from killing anybody and everybody at the castle.
Macbeth is in fact an evil man. Maybe at one point he could have been admired as a soldier, a brave man who would fight willingly for his country. He had the titles of Thane of Glamis and Thane of Cawdor but that wasnt enough for him. At the beginning of the play he would contemplate evil actions and then he would feel the guilt for these actions. The play concluded with him killing at the chance that someone was against him without giving it a second thought. To the very end, Macbeth proved to be a traitor and felt no longer any remorse for his actions. The play concluded with a satisfactory ending and Macbeth wasnt known for his great achievements and his aid to Scotland but as “this dead butcher” 9(Macbeth 5.8.82.) Scotland had seen its worst king and awaits its new fate. Harold Bloom put it best when he said that ” we welcome the daylight as if we were awakening from a nightmare.” 10(Bloom,131)
1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, The Folger Shakespeare Library, New York, 1992.
7. Daniel Leary, Macbeth, in the original and modern english, The perfection form company, New York, 1987.
8. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, The Folger Shakespeare Library, New York, 1992.
10. Harold Bloom, Major Literary Characters, Macbeth, : Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1939.
Shakespeare, William, Macbeth, New York: The Folger Shakespeare Library, 1992.
Ribner, Irving, Patearns in Shakespearean Tragedy, London: Meutheun, 1960.
Bloom, Harold, Major Literary Characters, Macbeth, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1939.
Leary, Daniel, Macbeth , in the original and modren english, New York: The perfection form company, 1987.
Harbage, Alfred, A Reader Guide to William Shakespeare, New York: The Noonday Press, 1963.